Dairy Calf Care in Pakistan

Caring for dairy calves in Pakistan is an important part of ensuring a healthy, sustainable dairy industry. In this blog post, we’ll dive into the basics of calf care and discuss how best to ensure that your calves stay healthy and productive. Read on to learn more!

Introduction to Dairy Calf Care in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to a variety of dairy production systems. In rural households, animals are closely integrated within the family, providing milk for direct consumption and sale. The average milk yield for a cow and buffalo is 14 and 10 liters per day respectively. Calf care and heifer management play an important role in maintaining dairy farm production.

The Livestock and Dairy Development Board (LDB) and Pakistan Dairy Development Company (PDDC) have designed an extension program to help smallholder farmers gain skills in modern dairy farming techniques. The program aims to cover topics such as calf feeding, dry period management, calving interval control, service period optimization, etc., in order to ensure optimal productivity from their herds.

Research conducted by the Department of Animal Sciences at the University of Sargodha suggests that providing appropriate extension services can lead to an increase in smallholder dairy farmer’s productivity. This study found that access to such services can result in improved calf health and better management practices on farms across Pakistan.

By following best practices for calf care outlined by LDB and PDDC, farmers can ensure their herds remain healthy and productive for many years to come. With support from these organizations, Pakistani farmers are well-equipped to meet the demands of modern dairy farming today!

Importance of Early Nutrition

Early nutrition is essential for the health and growth of calves, as it helps them transition from milk to solid feed. It can also influence the development of metabolic profiles related to cell proliferation, which is important for peak milk production. Poor calf nutrition and management can lead to higher mortality losses in dairy farming, so good care should be taken to ensure that calves get the best start in life. Colostrum has the potential to affect a calf’s appetite and can provide a physical fill factor that influences their dietary intake. Feeding calves without restricting their feed will help them develop into healthy cows with high milk production. It is therefore important to provide proper early nutrition for dairy calves in order to ensure successful farming operations.

Feeding Calves Appropriate Milk Replacers

Ensuring that calves receive the appropriate milk replacer is essential for their growth and development. Milk replacers are a great way to provide nutrition for young calves, as they can supply them with the necessary nutrients to thrive. Providing the right kind of milk replacer can also help reduce risks associated with underfeeding and illnesses. ProFarm offers a range of products and services to support a successful calf rearing program.

Colostrum should be fed within an hour after birth, providing up to four litres in the first 24 hours. Once a calf starts on milk replacers, they should continue receiving it at least twice daily until weaned at around eight weeks of age. Khan et al (2012) described milk replacers as feed ingredients which have been specially formulated to resemble the nutritional content of natural cow’s milk but without any animal products. Different breeds, feeding systems and challenges all need to be taken into consideration when selecting the best type for your calves. Ewe milk and Milk Replacer-1 have been found to be equally effective diets when looking after young animals (Ahmad et al., 2009). In western countries, male dairy calves are often raised as veal or sold at auction markets for beef production if there is no need for them on dairy farms (Ahmad et al., 2009).

Providing young calves with appropriate milk replacers is essential in order for them to grow healthy and strong. With careful management and by choosing the right product, farmers can ensure that their calves get all the nutrients they need without any adverse effects on their growth or health.

Vaccination Schedules for Dairy Calves in Pakistan

Vaccination is an important part of raising dairy calves in Pakistan. The Department of Veterinary Medicine recommends a vaccination schedule for FMD and HS that should be followed to ensure the health and safety of the animals. The first injection for FMD and HS should be given at one month old, followed by another injection at 1.5 months and then again after six months. It is also recommended that eye drops be administered up to one week old. Vaccinations are especially important in exotic blood cattle, which are more prone to contagious diseases.

The Government of Pakistan has used this strategy to vaccinate over 200,000 cows and buffaloes against FMD, leading to a non-significant increase in somatic cell count at 180 days post-vaccination compared to other days like 0, 60 or 120 days post-vaccination. It is important for farmers to follow these guidelines when raising dairy calves in order to get maximum benefit from their investment in raising dairy animals during various phases of life.

Monitoring the Health and Wellbeing of Dairy Calves

It is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of dairy calves in order to ensure optimal production outcomes. Good calf management practices such as calving management, colostrum management, and precision feed management are all important for ensuring the health of your calves. These practices should be tailored according to absolute nutrient requirements and dry-matter intake. Moreover, devices such as heart rate monitors and infrared thermometers can be used to measure the lying behaviour, heart rate variability, and body temperature of calves offered high-quality nutrition. Ultimately, monitoring the health of dairy calves will help improve herd performance while improving animal welfare.

Providing Appropriate Housing for Dairy Calves in Pakistan

Providing appropriate housing for dairy calves in Pakistan is essential for their health and wellbeing. With an estimated 15 million young animals in the country, it is important to ensure that proper facilities are provided to ensure their growth and development. Good housing leads to better management practices, which can help increase milk production and provide food security in Pakistan.

Most smallholder dairy farmers possess up to 10 animals, and a controlled shed dairy farm with a population of 100 American Holstein cows requires a balanced facility for raising baby calves. Such facilities must be dry, draft-free, well-ventilated, have adequate space and meet specific temperature requirements. Portable solid-sided individual calf pens inside a larger insulated building can provide satisfactory conditions for raising the young animals.

Extension services need to be made available to smallholder dairy farmers in order to provide them with up-to-date information about best practices for housing calves. By providing appropriate housing facilities, farmers can ensure better animal welfare standards as well as increased milk production. This will not only benefit the animals but also contribute towards improving food security in Pakistan overall.

Identifying Signs of Disease and Illness Early On

It is important to identify signs of disease and illness early on in order to prevent further complications or spread of the disease. Common signs of potential illness in dairy calves are sudden anorexia and depression, labored breathing, deep coughing, eye and nasal discharge, bloody diarrhea, or depression. Knowing these warning signs can help you act quickly if a calf begins to show any of these symptoms.

The three most common diseases affecting young calves are septicemia, diarrhea, and pneumonia. While these conditions may have similar symptoms as other infectious illnesses such as bovine theileriosis, babesiosis or anaplasmosis (all found in Pakistan), they must be treated differently according to their own causes.

To properly manage dairy calf health in Pakistan it is essential to have a good understanding of current knowledge about the major bovine diseases/syndromes reported there and the five identified indicators on the livelihood of small-scale dairy farmers there. This includes record analysis, colostrum and feeding protocols, housing and bedding management protocol reviews, diagnostic testing and data analysis.

It is also important to understand how certain diseases affect cattle such as transboundary animal disease (TAD) which can deeply affect the economic livelihoods for small-scale dairy farmers across Pakistan. One example would be bovine mastitis which typically occurs in dairy cows during early lactation causing reduced milk production along with hyporexia (or reduced appetite) and depression.

By recognizing the early warning signs of potential illness in dairy calves it is possible for farmers to take measures that will prevent further complications or spread of disease among their livestock before it becomes too serious an issue.

Dealing with Parasite Infestations in Dairy Cattle in Pakistan

Parasites are a major issue for dairy cattle in Pakistan, with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and ticks in many herds. Small-scale dairy farmers are particularly impacted by poor disease diagnosis and lack of preventive care, leading to milk production losses and reduced farm incomes. A study conducted in Hajira, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir revealed that 55.45% of the cattle were infested with parasites – the highest prevalence recorded. Furthermore, General Linear Modelling showed that treatment status was significantly associated with parasite prevalence.

In order to improve milk production and longevity in the milking herd, good calf care is essential. However, calves are born with no immunity against parasites so preventive measures must be taken to protect young animals from infestations. These measures include deworming at least once per month as well as frequent tick control treatments. Furthermore, regular vaccinations should be carried out to increase immunity in adult animals.

Implementing these prevention strategies is key to reducing parasite infestations and maximizing potential of cattle production in Pakistan. Adopting proper husbandry practices such as regular cleaning of housing areas can also help reduce the risk of parasite transmission between animals and improve overall health outcomes for dairy cattle in Pakistan

Managing Heat Stress for Dairy Cattle in Pakistan

Heat stress can be a major issue for dairy cattle in Pakistan, as warm climate and high humidity can lead to reduced milk production, fertility rate and conception rate. Farmers must take proper measures to ensure the health and immunity of their animals. Herd management is key, such as providing adequate fresh clean water at all times. Shade, fans, misters (in lower humidity areas) and coolers are effective tools that should be used to protect animals from heat stress. Crossbred animals are more susceptible and therefore require extra care.

Heat stress management includes providing shade, enhancing ventilation with fans or passive ventilation, cooling with misters or coolers and providing electrolytes in drinking water. Additionally, farmers should reduce environmental temperature by spraying water on walls and floors of the barns; this helps reduce air temperature in the barns during hot weather.

Farmers should also monitor feed consumption in their herd during hot weather; cows may eat less due to heat stress which can affect their health over time. Finally, proper calf rearing is essential since calves are more vulnerable to heat stress than adult cows; hutch-reared calves need extra attention when it comes to protecting them from heat stress abatement.

Overall, dairy farmers must take all necessary measures to protect their herd from heat stress; this will ensure good productivity along with the health and immunity of their animals.

Recognizing and Preventing Lameness Issues In Cows

Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, leading to tremendous economic loss on dairy farms. Early detection and treatment of lameness is essential for reducing losses and improving recovery. There are a few common causes of lameness in cows, such as sole ulcers, digital dermatitis, and claw horn lesions. To prevent lameness from occurring, farmers should practice good hoof care management such as trimming hooves regularly, providing comfortable bedding, maintaining clean and dry housing conditions, providing adequate nutrition with balanced minerals and vitamins as well as avoiding overcrowding of animals. Additionally, it is important to recognize signs of lameness early on in order to intervene quickly and effectively. Common signs include reduced locomotion or limping when walking or standing in place for a lengthy period of time. If any sign of lameness is observed it is important to seek veterinary advice immediately to determine the cause and implement appropriate treatment. By recognizing and preventing lameness issues in cows effectively, farmers can ensure their herds remain healthy and productive.

Castration Methods for Bull Calves In Pakistan

Castration is an important management practice for all male beef calves in Pakistan. There are two main types of castration methods used in the country – surgical and bloodless. The surgical method involves removing the testicles by making an incision in the scrotum, while the bloodless method uses a rubber ring or elastrator to cut off circulation to the testicles. Both methods have been found to be effective when performed on younger calves, however, castrating older, post-pubertal cattle is not recommended as it can reduce average daily gains. Producers should also be aware of potential risks associated with castrating their calves and should take necessary precautions for their safety.

Hoof Trimming Tips For Preweaned Heifers In Pakistan

Hoof trimming is essential for the health and well-being of preweaned heifers in Pakistan. Regular hoof trimming helps to reduce and even prevent lameness in dairy cows, improves productivity, and keeps feet healthy. The process of successful heifer rearing has improved greatly over the past six decades with research showing that calves should be fed more milk early in life to increase plasma GLP-2 concentrations. When it comes to hoof trimming, the flat part of the blade is used to trim the bottom of the hoof wall. Feet should be trimmed regularly and excessive exposure to wet environments should be avoided as a dry foot bath is recommended for soft feet treatment. In addition, it’s important to use precisely selected ingredients that strengthen and care for the hoof, helping with healing. All cows and heifers should have their feet trimmed two or three months prior to calving or during drying off. With proper hoof trimming techniques in place, dairy producers can raise successful and sustainable dairy herds in Pakistan.

Proper Weaning Techniques For Heifers InPakistan

Weaning heifers in Pakistan is an important part of raising healthy, productive dairy animals. Proper weaning techniques should be used to ensure the health and well-being of the heifer and its future productivity. Weaning must be done carefully to avoid causing stress or harm to the animal.

The ideal age for weaning a calf in Pakistan is 7 weeks, as this provides them with enough time to adjust to their new diet without being overly stressed. To ensure a smooth transition, feed should be gradually introduced over several days before full weaning occurs. This gradual transition will allow the calf to become accustomed to solid foods and help minimize stress levels associated with abrupt changes in diet.

Nutrition during this transition period is also essential for proper growth and development. Calves should receive a high-energy, nutrient-dense ration that meets their specific needs during this time. This should include adequate amounts of protein, fat, minerals, and vitamins for optimal growth and health.

Providing proper housing is also important for successful weaning in Pakistan. Heifers should have access to clean and spacious living areas that are free from overcrowding or other stressors such as drafts or loud noises that could cause distress during this adjustment period.

Finally, good hygiene practices must be followed when caring for calves during the weaning process including regular cleaning of housing areas, equipment and utensils used for feeding purposes as well as providing fresh drinking water at all times. By following these guidelines closely, dairy farmers in Pakistan can ensure their calves are properly cared for throughout their entire life cycle – from birth through adulthood – leading to healthier animals that are more productive members of the herd!

Tips on Transitioning Heifers From Milk to Solid Feeds

Transitioning heifers from milk to solid feeds is an important part of raising healthy dairy cows. This process involves understanding the digestive system of calves and providing a targeted growth approach based on the goals of optimizing growth and minimizing health problems. To do this, it is essential to provide clean, fresh water at all times and feed sick calves last to reduce the spread of disease. Also, colostrum is essential for the health and wellbeing of dairy cattle so care should be taken to ensure that preweaning calves receive the proper nutrients in their diets. Additionally, cows should be regrouped during dry periods from far-off areas to close proximity areas in order to ensure better animal welfare. By following these steps farmers can successfully transition their heifers from milk to solid feeds with minimal health risks.

Hybrid Cow Breed in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to a variety of cows, but now there’s an exciting new breed! Learn all about hybrid cows and how they are being used in Pakistan. From their history to their benefits for the local population, this blog post will provide you with all the information you need to know about hybrid cows in Pakistan.


The Sahiwal cattle is a breed of zebu cow, originating from the Punjab region of Pakistan. It is known for its excellent milk producing qualities and is one of the most popular breeds in India and Pakistan. The Sahiwal cows are resilient to heat, disease and require further improvement to enhance their milk production. They are mainly found in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The selection process for dairy cattle includes the use of Holstein Friesian cows with proven pedigree and high genetic worth from elite/superior sires. Additionally, other breeds such as Cholistani, Red Sindhi and Mahi are also used in the organized sector of milk production in Pakistan, contributing 0.43% to total milk production in the country. Research work has been done to introduce good breeds of zumo by crossing native breeds with foreign bloodlines such as White Park Cattle brought into Canada during World War II. This breed is also known as Red Karachi and Sindhi or Mahi and was originally found in Karachi and Hyderabad regions of undivided India before it spread across other parts of South Asia.

The Genetic Makeup of Hybrid Cows

Hybrid cows are a result of breeding two different types of cattle together to create a new breed with desirable qualities. This process involves carefully selecting the most suitable parent breeds and using them to create an animal with a hybrid genetic makeup. The resulting hybrid cows can have better milk, meat, or other desired traits compared to their parent breeds. In Pakistan, the Sahiwal breed is considered the best when it comes to dairy merits, while Holstein Friesian cattle are used for their high genetic worth and pedigree. Additionally, native breeds such as Red Sindhi and Nili-Ravi are being bred with modern cattle in order to improve their genetic makeup and disease resistance. The F1 crossbreds created through this process are then mated with Friesian bulls in order to produce three-breed crossbreds that possess superior qualities compared to their parents. As a result of these efforts, Pakistan’s processed milk sector contributes 0.43% of its GDP despite poor genetic makeup in some areas. Hybrid cows provide an excellent opportunity for farmers in Pakistan looking for improved production from their livestock herds.

Benefits of Hybrid Cows in Pakistan

Hybrid cows are increasingly becoming popular in Pakistan due to their superior milk production and hardiness. Hybrid cows are the result of crossbreeding local breeds with exotic breeds, such as the Bos Taurus, Sahiwal and Australian Friesian Sahiwal. This combination results in animals that have better growth rates and increased hardiness, as well as higher milk yields.

The hybrid cows can help increase dairy production in peri-urban areas of Pakistan where there is greater demand for milk. The productivity of hybrid cows is much higher than nondescript or purebred local breeds and they have longer lactation periods too. In addition, these animals are more resistant to heat and diseases than local cattle breeds.

Organizations involved in the processed milk sector contribute over 0.43% to the national economy of Pakistan through hybrid cow rearing. Hybrid cows can also be used to improve existing local cattle populations by providing better growth rates, hardiness and more robustness against disease.

Overall, hybrid cows offer many advantages for commercial dairy farming businesses in Pakistan – from increased milk production to improved animal health – making them a viable business proposition for those involved in this industry.

Breeders and Suppliers in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to a diverse variety of cattle breeds, which are well suited to the country’s climate and its needs. Many breeders and suppliers in Pakistan are dedicated to providing high-quality livestock for sale, with a commitment to quality and animal welfare.

Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Neeli and other native breeds are particularly popular in Pakistan due to their hardiness and adaptability. Sahiwal is renowned for its high milk yield whilst Red Sindhi has excellent meat production qualities.

Other breeds such as the crossbreeds of exotic cattle imported from countries like the United States can also be found in Pakistan. These cattle have been bred for improved productivity such as higher milk yields over longer lactation periods.

The breeding of dairy cows is a complex process that involves careful management and feeding regimes as well as disease control measures in order to ensure hygienic production of milk on farm. Animal breeders and suppliers in Pakistan take all these factors into consideration when selecting livestock for sale so that customers receive only the best animals available.

With a commitment to quality assurance, breeders and suppliers in Pakistan strive to provide customers with healthy animals that meet their needs while respecting animal welfare standards at all times.

Care for Hybrid Cow Breeds

Hybrid cow breeds are becoming increasingly popular in Pakistan due to their resistance to heat and disease. To ensure the best dairy production, it’s important for farmers to provide proper calf care and heifer management. This includes raising female calves as future breeding heifers with desirable traits such as viability, age at first calving, milk yield, milk composition, and calving interval. However, over the years there has been a decline in productive life and herd life as well as a decrease in service period and calving interval.

For those looking to breed hybrid cows in Pakistan, private initiatives such as Viking Genetics offer crossbreeding cattle for seasonal calving and healthy, fertile cows for pasture-based production. Other Indian cattle breeds can also be used for draft purposes or conservation purposes such as LIC’s Holstein Friesian bulls which provide highly efficient daughters with an average mature liveweight of around 540kg. Although hybrid breeds may not yield the same results as authentic breeds from India or Pakistan, they can still offer many benefits when cared for properly.

Feeding Practices for Hybrid Cows

Hybrid cows are a popular choice for dairy production in Pakistan due to their high yields. To ensure optimal performance and health, it is important to provide these animals with a nutritious diet that includes forages, grains, and minerals. Forage varieties such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, sorghum-sudan grass hybrids, mott grass, sorghum, maize and millet have been identified as excellent sources of nutrition for dairy cows. These should be supplemented with minerals to ensure optimal performance during lactation. Corn (maize), sorghum, milo wheat barley or oats can also be added to the diet for fattening cattle at 2.2 – 3.0% of their live weight. Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle is also a popular breed amongst dairy farmers in India and Pakistan due to its high hybrid vigour, good milk production even in hotter climates and quiet disposition. Feeding practices should be undertaken with the help of trained village based Local Resource Persons (LRPs) who can educate milk producers on scientific animal nutrition methods.

Health Issues Associated with Hybrid Cow Breeds

Hybrid cow breeds are becoming increasingly popular among farmers in Pakistan due to their potential for high milk yield. However, there are potential health issues associated with these cows that need to be taken into consideration. These include reproductive disorders such as anestrus, repeat breeding and prolapse, Redwater (hemoglobinuria) and increased risk factors such as sex, age, health status and breed. Furthermore, the use of single-herd or few imported bulls may lead to inbreeding which can reduce fertility.

Other challenges associated with hybrid cow breeds include food safety issues such as β-casein proteins, antibiotics and aflatoxins as well as local replacements of high genetic potential dairy animals. In addition, 81 cows were allocated a predominantly perennial diet which has been linked to putative positive effects on dairy production.

It is important for Pakistani farmers to be aware of the potential health issues associated with hybrid cow breeds so that they can make informed decisions when selecting animals for their farms. Good animal husbandry practices should also be followed in order to ensure optimal animal welfare and productivity levels.

Popularity & Demand of Hybrid Cows in Pakistan

The demand for hybrid cows in Pakistan is growing as commercial dairy farming becomes a viable business proposition. The indigenous breeds of buffalo and cows are poor milk producers, with lactation yields that remain constant. To address this concern, Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle represents the best germplasm in India and Pakistan for dairy production. Along with Sahiwal cattle, other quality livestock gene pool in Pakistan includes Nili-Ravi and Kundi breeds of buffalos, Red Sindhi, and U.S. Cattle.

Due to advances in mechanization and the rise in demand for beef and milk, the need for draft cattle has decreased as horses and machines have taken their place. Studies have been conducted at three military dairy farms in Punjab to evaluate the performance of crossbred cattle which indicate a potential increase in milk production. This shift from local cow breeds to Holstein cows has also increased the demand for higher quality feed as well as further shipments of U.S cattle expected to arrive soon.

With hybrid cows becoming more popular among farmers in Pakistan, there is an opportunity to improve dairy production while providing better nutrition to livestock animals which will ultimately benefit both farmers and consumers alike.

Economic Value and Impact on Dairy Industry in Pakistan

The dairy industry in Pakistan is a critical part of the country’s economy, contributing more than the value of wheat and cotton sectors combined. Agriculture as a whole makes up 18.9% of Pakistan’s GDP, with livestock playing an important role and growing at a rate of 4% in 2018-19. Livestock contributes over 51.8% to agriculture value added and 11.3% to the national economy overall.

Milk production from cows and buffaloes has been relatively low until recently due to low genetic potential compared to foreign breeds. To improve milk production from local breeds, selective breeding and improved fodder combinations are being implemented. Investment decisions are being made along various agricultural commodity value chains for better returns in the dairy industry in Pakistan.

The economic impact of the dairy industry on Pakistan is significant due to its contribution towards employment opportunities for rural communities, higher incomes for farmers, increased food security, better nutrition levels among children, greater access to markets for small scale producers as well as providing essential animal protein sources that are essential for human health and development.

Challenges Faced by Farmers Regarding Hybrids

Hybrid cow breeds are becoming increasingly popular amongst farmers in Pakistan due to their high yields and increased productivity. However, many farmers face several challenges when it comes to working with hybrid cows. These challenges include obtaining access to the necessary resources, such as quality feed, veterinary care, and genetics; adapting to a changing market environment; and ensuring that the resulting products meet quality standards. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge about the exact requirements for successful breeding programs, which can lead to poor management practices and reduced productivity. Finally, weak marketing strategies can prevent farmers from taking advantage of all available opportunities. To ensure the success of hybrid cow breeding in Pakistan, these challenges must be addressed through improved education programs, better access to resources, and better implementation of marketing strategies.

Regulations Relating to Use of Hybrids

Regulations relating to the use of hybrids for animal breeding are important for ensuring a safe and efficient production system. Hybrids are the result of crossing two different breeds or species, which can bring about desirable traits such as improved performance, greater disease resistance, and improved production of milk or meat. The use of hybrids has become increasingly important in modern animal agriculture due to advances in biotechnology and genetics.

In order to ensure proper management and quality control, regulations have been set up by governments worldwide to govern the use of hybrids in breeding programs. These regulations include standards for selection of breeding animals, collection and production facilities, semen use, frozen and liquid semen availability, breed improvement through artificial insemination (AI), exotic breed crossbreeding and the use of indigenous animals for draught/beef purposes.

To ensure safety during hybridization processes, regulations also exist regarding the number of generations that must be crossed before a hybrid can be considered purebred or registered with an official association (such as a kennel club). In addition, there may be restrictions on where certain hybrid combinations can be produced or sold due to concerns about potential health risks related to genetic incompatibility between parent breeds.

The purpose of these regulations is to ensure that only those animals with desirable characteristics are bred together in order to produce strong offspring which will support animal agriculture on an industrial scale. By following these guidelines closely it is possible to create new generations that are healthier and more productive than their parents while avoiding risks associated with improper hybridization practices.

Animal Welfare Considerations with Hybrids

Animal welfare is an important consideration when introducing hybrid cattle into a farming system. The native, or indigenous, breeds of cattle may have adapted to their local environment over hundreds of years and are therefore better equipped to thrive in harsh and extreme conditions. Hybrids, on the other hand, are often bred with productivity in mind and may not be as resilient as the local breeds.

Hybrid cows are also more prone to disease than local breeds due to their decreased immunity levels caused by temperature variations. This can be a major concern for small-scale dairy farmers where poor disease diagnosis can lead to reduced milk production. In order for hybrid cows to remain healthy and productive in such environments, farmers must monitor their animals closely and ensure they have access to quality feed and veterinary care.

Furthermore, it is important that hybrid cows have access to natural grazing pastures since this allows them the opportunity for exercise and socialization which has been shown to improve animal welfare. However, this should always be done within the framework of sustainable pasture management practices which take into account the needs of both animals and humans alike.

Overall, if done responsibly with consideration for animal welfare needs as well as environmental concerns, introducing hybrid cattle into a farming system can lead to increased productivity while also preserving traditional livestock breeds.

Trends in the Use of Hybrid Cows

The use of hybrid cows is on the rise as more and more farmers are opting for a combination of traditional dairy breeds with zebu breeds in order to increase the production capacity of their herds. This combination has been proven to result in increased productivity and better herd life, while also providing a longer lactation period. Crossbreeds have become popular due to their superior productivity per animal when compared to traditional breeds, and artificial insemination through sexed semen is helping to further improve output.

Hybrid cows can also be classified into dairy and beef cattle categories which contributes to our understanding of the various bovine species and their hybrid forms. The production of high-quality cow milk is one of the most important traits that hybrid cows possess, and this is generating greater income for farmers who use them. Nutrition, animal health, and breeding developments are all key components that will continue to influence trends in hybrid cow use over time.


The dairy industry in Pakistan has a long and varied history, with different breeds of cattle providing milk and other dairy products over the years. Holstein Friesian cows with proven pedigrees and high genetic worth are the most commonly used breed in Pakistan today. Native breeds such as Sahiwal and Yakmo are also present in the country, but their lactation yields remain low compared to Holstein cows. The processed milk sector of Pakistan contributes 0.43% to the national economy, making it an important part of the nation’s agricultural industry. Classification of cattle breeds plays an important role in understanding the history of cattle and conserving genetic resources for future generations. By focusing on breeding programs that emphasize fertility and high-yielding cows, Pakistani farmers have a great opportunity to improve their livelihoods by producing higher quality dairy products for domestic consumption and export markets.

What is Difference Between Desi cow and Jersey Cow?

Are you curious about the differences between Desi cows and Jersey cows? Are you looking for more information about the breeds when it comes to dairy production and meat production? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’ll be exploring the key differences between these two cattle breeds, including their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages.


Cows are found in a variety of breeds and types, and it is important to understand the differences between them. Desi cows and Jersey cows are two of the most popular types of cattle. The main difference between Desi and Jersey cows is their physical appearance, milk production, adaptability, and micro-nutrient content in dung.

Desi (Brahma) type cattle have droopy ears and a hump. They also have curved horns with a thick base. On the other hand, Jerseys have no hump and look rather large with their large heads and relatively short horns.

When compared to the Jersey breed, Desi cows often produce less milk than Jersey cows; however doctors encourage pregnant women, children, and elderly people to drink this type of milk due to its higher micro-nutrient content. The dung of the Indian cows contains more microbes and micro nutrients approximately 85-90% whereas the Jersey cow contains 50-60%.

Adaptability wise, Jerseys are more able to adapt quickly to different climates than Desi Cows but Indian breeds are better suited for our tropical climate. In 1950 India had more than 70 indigenous cow breeds after gaining independence; unfortunately over the last 70 years India has lost more than 50% of these breeds due to extensive crossbreeding with American breeds such as Jerseys or Holstein Friesians (HF).

Overall both Desi Cows as well as Jerseys offer unique qualities that make them valuable assets for any agricultural setting or dairy farm!

Physical Differences

The physical differences between Desi (Brahma) and Jersey cows are quite noticeable. Desi cows have droopy ears and a hump while Jerseys have no hump and look more like traditional cattle. Desi cows also have curved horns with a thick base compared to the large heads and short horns of hybrid Jersey cows. In terms of size, Holsteins are the biggest dairy breed, weighing up to 1,500 pounds, while Jerseys are much smaller. When looking at their milk production, Holsteins produce 4061 Kg in the first seventy days of lactation whereas Jerseys only produce 2706 Kg. Furthermore, Desi cows contain the A2 allele gene which makes their milk more nutrient-dense than that of Jersey cows.

Milk Production

Milk production is the process of producing milk from cows, goats, sheep and other dairy animals. Milk is a nutritious and healthy food that provides essential nutrients to humans. It is one of the most important agricultural commodities and plays an important role in global food security. The primary purpose of milk production is to provide fresh, nutritious milk for human consumption.

To produce high-quality milk, cows must be well-fed and healthy with access to clean water and ample pasture or hay for feed. Dairy farmers must also provide regular veterinary care for their animals as well as maintain high standards of animal welfare. Modern dairy farms use specialized equipment such as milking machines and automated feeding systems to ensure efficiency, productivity and food safety standards are met.

Milk production also requires careful management of herd health by identifying any illnesses or issues early on that could affect the quality of the milk produced. Farmers must also meet various regulations including those set out by national governments as well as international organizations in order to ensure their products are safe for public consumption.

Milk has a variety of uses besides drinking it plain or adding it to coffee or tea; it can be used in cooking, baking, ice cream making, cheese making, yogurt production and other food products such as butter or ghee.

Temperament and Behavior

Temperament and behavior are important characteristics of cows. Generally, Jersey cows are known to have a more pleasant temperament than other breeds, and are very docile. This makes them ideal for milking as they can handle stress better. On the other hand, desi cows tend to be more nervous and skittish than Holstein cows or other breeds. Desi cow dung also contains more microbes and micro nutrients (approximately 85-90%) compared to the 50-60% found in Jersey cow dung. In Punjab, the American varieties promoted are HF and Jersey while Indian breeds like Sahiwal, Rathi and Gir are also popular. Jerseys tend to be more independent minded compared to other dairy breeds while their bulls have a strong masculine look despite their small size. Lastly, research has revealed that Jerseys are less susceptible to mastitis than most other dairy breeds due to their high immunity levels against disease causing bacteria.

Lifespan and Health Issues

The lifespan and health of different cow breeds vary significantly. Indian cows, such as the Gir cow, typically live longer than their crossbred counterparts like the Jersey cow. The dung of Indian cows contains more microbes and micro nutrients, giving them an edge in terms of longevity and health. In general, Jersey cows have shorter lifespans due to fertility issues, metabolic diseases, and other factors. They are also more prone to gas and diarrhea due to their high consumption of fodder. Primiparous Jersey cows also tend to have earlier first calving than Holstein cows. In addition, research has indicated that Jersey cows are less susceptible to mastitis and lameness compared with Holsteins. Therefore, while there are definite differences between the lifespans and health issues of various cow breeds, Jersey cows can still be quite productive in dairy farms when managed correctly.

Feeding Habits and Nutrition Requirements

Feeding habits and nutritional requirements are an important factor when it comes to cows, particularly dairy cows. Jersey cows are a breed that is known for producing good milk production, with tall and thin builds compared to other breeds. Their milk has higher fat content than that of Holstein or HF Milk, being slightly yellowish in colour. The feeding behaviour of primiparous and multiparous Jersey cows can be compared to that of Holsteins.

When it comes to nutrition requirements, scientific studies show the Jersey cow produces milk more efficiently than other breeds due to their higher fat (and therefore energy) content as well as a higher milk protein content and manufacturing quality. They are also able to meet the Chinese Feeding Standard of Dairy Cow better due to their basic diets providing the right amounts of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins necessary for proper growth and development.

Another difference between whey and colostrum is that whey does not clot within the abomasum while colostrum has 3-5 times more protein than regular milk and contains beneficial minerals like copper, iron, zinc and magnesium which help with digestion. Having said this, a good diet is essential for healthy cows so make sure your dairy cow gets the right amount of feed for its size!

Cost of Maintenance and Production

The cost of maintenance for Jersey cows and other crossbreds is lower than that of Desi (Brahma) type cattle. This is because hybrid cows consume less fodder while yielding almost double the amount of milk. As a result, these cows are more popular among dairy farmers due to their low maintenance cost. Additionally, Jerseys mature more quickly and dairy heifer calves can be obtained at an early age. In 1985, fifty Jersey cows were imported to Pakistan from the United States of America (USA).

This paper compares milk production and reproduction performance between Desi (Brahma) type cattle and Jersey cows. Despite being disadvantaged in profitability, Jersey cows were slightly more feed efficient at 1.75 lb. of energy-corrected milk per lb. of feed consumed compared to Desi types. Therefore, it is clear that while the cost of maintenance is lower for Jerseys, they also provide higher yields in terms of milk production and reproduction performance compared to Desi types.

Adaptability to Climate Change

Climate change is a reality that has been impacting us and the environment for decades. With the rise in temperatures, extreme weather events, and changes in precipitation patterns, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how different species adapt to these changes. While some species can survive in harsh conditions, others require particular environmental conditions to thrive. This is especially true for cows and other livestock animals, which depend on their environment for food and shelter.

Adaptability to climate change is an important trait for cows and other livestock animals. As temperatures fluctuate, specific breeds of cows may be better equipped to tolerate the changing conditions than others. For example, studies have shown that jersey cattle are more tolerant of high-altitude climates than other breeds like Friesian cows. This adaptation allows them to produce milk despite the harsh environments they may find themselves in. Additionally, sheep and goats have been found to be more resilient during periods of severe heat stress or water/food scarcity than other species due to their phenotypic plasticity—the ability for an individual plant or animal to adjust its physical characteristics or behavior according to its surroundings.

Ultimately, understanding how different breeds adapt differently to climate change can help farmers choose the best breed for their location and situation as this can play an important role in their success when farming livestock animals such as cows.

Usefulness in Agricultural Practices

Agricultural practices play a major role in the production of food for people all around the world. In order to successfully produce food, farmers must use the most effective and efficient methods available. Many agricultural practices are used to improve crop yields and increase efficiency. These practices include crop rotation, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, and soil conservation.

Crop rotation is an important practice that has been used for centuries to ensure that crops receive adequate nutrients from the soil. By rotating different crops in a field every year, farmers are able to replenish the soil with essential nutrients while controlling pest populations and preventing disease outbreaks.

Irrigation is another practice that is often used in agriculture. Irrigation systems help farmers ensure that their crops have access to water even during periods of drought or low rainfall levels. This helps keep crops healthy and maximize yield potentials.

Fertilizers are also commonly used by farmers as a way of providing additional nutrients for their crops. Fertilizers can come in many forms including organic matter such as manure or compost or synthetic chemical fertilizers which can be applied directly to the soil or sprayed onto plants through an irrigation system.

Pest control is also an important agricultural practice as it helps protect crops from pests like insects, rodents, fungi, and diseases which can damage or destroy entire fields of crops if left unchecked. Farmers can use a variety of methods such as traps, insecticides, herbicides, and biological controls to limit damage caused by pests and diseases on their farms.

Soil conservation techniques are also very important as they help preserve existing soil resources while improving fertility levels in existing soils over time with proper management techniques such as tillage practices

Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction

Genetics, breeding and reproduction play an important role in the productivity of livestock. The productive performance of indigenous cattle is often lower than that of exotic breeds due to their unexploited genotype. In 1985, fifty Jersey cows were imported to Pakistan from the United States of America (USA). Today, Jerseys are the second largest breed of dairy cattle in the world, with fewer than 6,000 in total and around 4,000 in Jersey itself. When compared to Holstein and Guernsey breeds, all Jerseys clustered together as a breed. Jerseys demonstrate increased inbreeding when compared to other breeds. Breeding efficiency in Jersey cows is significantly higher than that of Holstein Friesian cows. Despite their good genetic potential, productive and reproductive performance of indigenous breeds remains very low due to a shortage of feed and lack of proper husbandry practices. To improve these performances, crossbreeding between exotic and local cattle has been used successfully for decades to increase milk production as well as reproductive performance.

Susceptibility to Disease

Susceptibility to disease is a major concern for farmers and those in the dairy industry. Many factors can contribute to a cow’s susceptibility, including breed, environment, and nutrition. For example, cows of the Holstein breed tend to be more prone to disease than Jersey cows due to their lighter hoof color that makes them more susceptible to lameness. Additionally, hot climates are less suitable for certain breeds of cows and may increase their risk of infection. Poor nutrition can also leave cows vulnerable to disease as it weakens their immune system. To reduce the risk of diseases in cattle herds, farmers should consider the breed and environmental conditions when selecting cows for their herd as well as provide proper nutrition for optimal health.

Popularity with Farmers

The popularity of dairy cows with farmers has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many farmers are now opting for breeds like Jersey cows, which produce more milk than local varieties. Jerseys have also become popular because of their high fat content in the milk they produce and their distinctive brown body with red markings. Furthermore, the removal of milk quotas has allowed many dairy farmers to take advantage of the Jersey breed’s high milk production capabilities. On the other hand, Holstein cows remain a favorite among many farms and ranches, as they are larger and can produce more milk than Jerseys. Indian farming communities are also taking advantage of the benefits offered by indigenous cows’ higher suitability for children’s physical and mental growth.

Suitability for Dairy Farming

Dairy farming is a popular way to make a living, and the right cow breed is essential for success. Desi Cows are smaller and less productive than more common breeds such as Holstein, making them most suitable for small-scale operations. On the other hand, Jersey cows produce more milk with higher fat and protein content, making them ideal for larger operations. In India, Desi Cows are preferred due to their ability to better withstand the hot tropical climate and their suitability for children’s physical and mental growth. However, Jersey cows can be more efficient in countries where feed may be scarce or expensive. Ultimately, it all comes down to the size of your operation and what type of milk production you are looking for when determining which breed of cow is best suited for your dairy farming needs.

Benefits of Desi Cow over Jersey Cow

Desi cows have long been a part of the Indian culture and their milk has been used for centuries in traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Desi cows are revered for their many benefits, including providing high quality organic milk, an abundance of natural fertilizer, and helping to revive degraded land. In comparison to Jersey cows, Desi cows produce less milk, but the health benefits of their A2 milk are much greater. Desi cow’s milk is easier to digest than that of a Jersey cow because it contains more beneficial enzymes and nutrients. Additionally, Desi cow manure is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus which is great for soil fertility and helps to improve crop yields. Finally, due to the hardy nature of the breed, it requires minimal medical care compared to other breeds such as Jersey cows. This makes them ideal for small-scale farmers who may not be able to afford expensive health care for larger breeds. All in all, the benefits of keeping Desi cows far outweigh those of keeping Jersey cows!


The main difference between Desi cows and Jersey cows is in their appearance, milk composition, and quality of dung. Desi cows have curved horns with a thick base, while hybrid cows such as Jerseys have large heads and relatively short horns. The milk from Desi cows contains the A2 protein, which is more nutrient-dense than the A1 protein found in the milk of foreign breeds like Jersey. Additionally, Indian cow dung contains more microbes and micro nutrients than that of Jersey cows. Red Sindhis were crossed with Jerseys at three stations to develop dairy cattle adaptable to southern climates, resulting in higher quality milk production for processing dairy products.

Black and White Cow Breeds

Are you looking to add some new cows to your farm? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’re here to help you find the perfect breed for your needs. We’ve rounded up some of the best black and white cow breeds out there, from traditional Holsteins to newer crosses. Read on to learn more about these amazing animals!


The Holstein is a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Netherlands and Northern Germany. Holsteins are known for their distinctive black and white markings and are the most popular dairy cows in the United States, accounting for around 90% of all dairy cows. Holsteins have large bodies, usually weighing between 1,500-1,800 pounds. They are also long-lived animals with productive lifespans of 6 years or more.

Holstein cows were originally bred to be dual-purpose animals, meaning they were used both for milk production and beef production. Today they are primarily used as dairy cows due to their ability to produce large amounts of milk. On average, a single Holstein cow can produce up to 7 gallons of milk each day! This makes them an ideal choice for commercial dairies looking to maximize their output.

In addition to their use as dairy cows, Holsteins also make great show animals. Their unique black and white patterns make them stand out from other breeds in shows and competitions. The breed has even been recognized by the American Dairy Association with its own official certification program – the ‘Holstein USA Official Certification Program’.

Whether you’re looking for a reliable source of high quality milk or an eye catching show animal – the Holstein is a great option!


The Jersey is a small dairy cow originating from the British Channel Islands. As one of the three Channel Island breeds, it is renowned for its high production of milk and butterfat. The Jersey breed has been imported to other parts of the world, and its popularity continues to grow due to its adaptability to various farm systems and efficient, sustainable performance.

The Jersey has a black and white coat which makes it easily recognizable among other breeds. It is one of the few black and white dairy cow breeds due to its rarity in comparison with brown or red cows. The color combination makes this breed even more desirable as a source for milk production.

As far as temperament goes, Jerseys are known for their docile nature which makes them easy to manage. Despite their small stature, they are incredibly productive cows that can produce up to 18 liters of milk per day! It also helps that they have relatively short gestation periods compared to other dairy cows, allowing them a quicker turnaround between births.

Overall, Jerseys are an excellent choice for any farmer looking for high-quality milk production while still being able to handle other farm duties such as plowing or herding cattle on pastures. Their docile nature coupled with their efficient performance make them an ideal addition to any farming operation!


The Guernsey is a beautiful breed of dairy cattle hailing from the island of Guernsey in the Channel Islands. They come in a variety of colors, ranging from yellow to reddish-brown with white patches. They have an even temperament and are not known for being nervous or irritable. In addition, their light coat color makes them particularly well-suited to tolerate heat.

The Guernsey has a rich history on the islands, where it was developed over centuries as part of its unique environment. Thanks to its golden milk, full of beta carotene, the breed is known as “The Royal Breed” and is highly sought after for its delicate aesthetic qualities and pleasant disposition.

In terms of size, Guernseys are larger than Jerseys and produce milk that is quite pronounced in flavor and aroma. Nationally they can be found all over with their highest populations located in Wisconsin and Michigan.


The Ayrshire is a Scottish breed of dairy cattle that originated in the county of Ayr and is named after it. The breed is known for its red and white color pattern, with the red ranging from a light orange to a dark mahogany. Its horns are distinctive, lyre-shaped and the body color can vary from almost pure white to nearly all cherry red or brown with any combination of colors, including black or brindle.

Ayrshires are hardy animals that are well adapted to living on hilly terrain and can easily adjust to different climates. They have good feet and legs which make them great for long-distance travel. They also tend to be docile animals which makes them easy to handle in the dairy barns.

In terms of milk production, Ayrshires are known for their high butterfat content which makes their milk especially rich and creamy. They produce an average of 5500–7000 kilograms (12000–15500 pounds) of milk per lactation period with 4% butterfat content in their milk.

Ayrshires have become popular in many countries due to their reliability as milk producers, good temperament, ease of management and attractive appearance.

Milking Shorthorn

The Milking Shorthorn is a breed of dairy cattle originating from the northeast part of England. They are easily recognizable due to their distinctive color pattern of black and white or red. Milking Shorthorns are known for being efficient grazers that are easy to manage, which may be why they became world-renowned as an excellent dairy breed. The Whitebred Shorthorn, which was developed to cross with black Galloway cattle, is a type of Shorthorn bred to be consistently white. They are also referred to as the “Aristocrat” of the dairy breeds due their size and vigor, as well as their ability to adapt easily to their environment. All in all, it’s no wonder they have become such a popular choice for dairy farmers around the world!

Brown Swiss

The Brown Swiss cattle breed is one of the oldest dairy breeds in the world, originating in the Swiss Alps. This breed is a light brown color with a creamy white muzzle and dark nose, and distinctive dark-blue eye pigmentation. Brown Swiss cows are known for their docility and milking ability, making them a popular choice among dairy farmers. They are also known to be hardy and long-lived, able to survive in harsher climates than other breeds. The breed has also been taken to high mountain pastures during summer months, where they can graze freely while providing milk for the local population. The Brown Swiss is an excellent choice for both dairy production and as a dual purpose animal for meat production.

Red and White Holstein

Red and White Holsteins are a beautiful breed of cattle with a distinctive red and white spotted markings. They are large in frame, weighing up to 1,400 pounds in maturity. They have black and white or red and white color patterns which make them easily recognizable. Their origin is from the region of Friesland and Northern Germany, where they were first bred as dairy cows. Red and White Holsteins are known for their high milk production, making them one of the most popular dairy cow breeds in the world today. They also have strong genetics from other cattle varieties with reddish coats like Milking Shorthorns, making them hardy animals that can thrive in numerous climates. This makes them a great choice for farms looking to diversify their herd!

Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cow

Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cow is a breed of dual-purpose cattle believed to have originated in Central Europe during the 19th century. It is a cross between different breeds of domestic cattle, such as the Simmental and Fleckvieh, and produces an especially large volume of milk. This breed has a reddish or black coat with a white star on its forehead, making it easily recognizable. Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cows are well-suited for both milk and meat production, making them an ideal choice for farmers looking to diversify their herd. They are also highly sought after due to their hardy nature and ability to thrive in high altitudes. With its gentle temperament and efficient production capabilities, Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cows are sure to provide great value for any farm or ranch.

White Park Cattle

White Park Cattle is a rare breed of ancient horned cattle that primarily reside in Great Britain. They are mostly white with black or red points, such as the ears, nose and eyes. The American White Park is a large breed with an average weight of 1000 pounds for cows and bulls between. This breed has distinctive wide-spreading horns which are usually black-tipped.

White Park cattle have been bred in Britain for more than two thousand years and is an important part of British agricultural history. They produce delicious beef and also used for milk production. Their upper portion of the tongue should be black while underneath is white.

If you’re looking for a unique black and white cow breed, consider the Holstein-Friesian! This prolific breed hails from Friesland and northern Holland, known for its “white park” color pattern with its white coat accompanied by black or red eye rings, ears, nose, feet, and more. It’s one of the most popular dairy breeds used around the world but can also be used to produce beef as well.

Limousin Cow

The Limousin Cow is an ancient breed of cattle that developed in central France in the province of Limousin. It was initially bred for draught and beef production under pastoral conditions, but has since become popular for crossbreeding. These cows are large, light-colored animals, typically with white or cream coloring and light hair with dark pigmented skin. They can also be black, yellow, white or dun in color and have horns. Limousins with black genetics may show a variation in color as well. Calves can be light fawn or brown in color graduating to a darker shade as they age. Popularly known as “Oreo cattle” due to their black coloration with a white stripe through their middles, this breed is often featured prominently in children’s books and TV ads due to its attractive markings.


Angus is a breed of black, polled beef cattle originating in northeastern Scotland. Also known internationally as Aberdeen Angus, they were developed in the early 19th century from both polled and predominantly black horned breeds. Angus cattle are popular for their meat production due to their high-quality marbling, making them ideal for beef products such as steak. They are also easy to manage and have good fertility rates. The breed can come in either black or red varieties, but the majority of Angus cattle are black. With their gentle temperament and hardy nature, Angus is often a preferred breed for ranchers around the world.


The Charolais is a French breed of taurine beef cattle that originated in the Charolais area surrounding Charolais, France. It is known for its large size and sturdy frame, making it an ideal choice for meat production and draft work. Charolais are typically white in color, although some strains may be black or red. This breed is also popularly used as a crossbreeding partner to give other cattle breeds better growth rate and higher quality beef. The White Galloway strain has a distinct black point pattern with white base coat, giving it a unique appearance. The Dhanni breed from the Punjab region of Pakistan has black and white color combinations with distinct patches of splashy colors on their body. Overall, the Charolais is an incredibly versatile breed that can be used for multiple purposes due to its hardiness, strength and handsome features.


The Hereford is an iconic British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire in the West Midlands of England. It is known for its dark red to reddish-yellow coat and white face, crest, dewlap and underline. It is also popular for its hardiness and ability to do well in a variety of climates and situations. The Hereford is a reliable producer of high quality beef and has been used extensively as a crossbreed with other breeds to improve their performance. Herefords are also well known for their gentle nature, making them excellent family cows. They are very easy to work with and make great companions for farmers, ranchers, hobbyists, and anyone who loves having cattle around!

Devon Cattle

Devon Cattle are an ancient British breed of large beef cattle which originated in the counties of Devon and Cornwall in south-west England. They have been around for centuries, and are known for their distinct color splashing on the body, which can range from deep red to light chestnut, with white patches on the tail switch, udder or scrotum. Devon Cattle produce high quality beef that is leaner than other breeds due to their low fat content. They also have a strong immune system and are highly resilient to disease. Devon Cattle thrive in both warm and cold climates due to their adaptability, making them a great choice for homesteaders looking for a reliable dairy or beef source.

Scottish Highland Cattle

The Scottish Highland Cattle are a traditional Scottish breed of beef cattle, known for their rustic appearance and long horns. They have long shaggy coats in red, black or white and can be identified by the belt-like pattern of white around their middle. This breed is hardy and intelligent, having been bred to withstand the conditions in the highlands of Scotland. The original two classes were the West Highlands or Kyloe, which were raised on western islands of Scotland, and the Highlander class which was found inland. Today they are popularly used for their beef as well as for show purposes. They are also known to make good companion animals due to their gentle nature and inquisitive personalities.