Are you a farmer looking to increase your cow milk yield? Are you interested in learning more about the Cholistani cow, one of the world’s most productive dairy breeds? If so, this blog post is for you! We’ll discuss the benefits of raising Cholistani cows, as well as tips and tricks for maximizing your milk yield.
The Cholistani cows are a large-sized, flabby breed that originates from the Cholistan Desert area of Pakistan. They are known to produce 15-18 liters of milk per day, making them very efficient dairy animals. Average body weight is around 450-500 kg and they require a moderate level of nutrition. The udder is medium-sized with a lactation yield ranging from 1200 to 1800 liters per lactation period. Crossbreeding has been adopted in Pakistan to increase the milk production of these non-descript indigenous cows which are related to both Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Heat stress can reduce the amount of milk produced by these animals, so farmers must take care to ensure that their cows are properly managed and given adequate fertility treatments. An elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow has been maintained by the Government Jugaitpir and can yield up to 18 liters of milk per day.
Understanding Cow Anatomy
The Govt. Livestock Farm in Jugaitpeer, Bahawalpur is home to an elite specimen of the Cholistani cow which yields up to 15-18 liters of milk per day. During the 2000s, the milk production from both cows and buffaloes in Pakistan increased drastically due to an unknown mechanism. A Holstein calf typically weighs 80-110 lbs at birth and a mature Holstein cow can weigh up to 1,300-1,500 lbs. Milk yield from these cows can reach up to 7200-9000 kgs per lactation period. Paul Ehrlich is known as the “Father of Immunology” and he discovered antibody production, humoral theory, acid fast staining and skipping one milking to show that a cow may become refractory or fail to display milk yield (3-5%). Giemsa stain from milk sample of cattle and buffaloes was also used to understand the cluster based system which measured milk yield and electrical conductivity during milking in order to monitor cow health. Analysis of 8 dairy cows showed that their parity averaged 3.2±0.6 with a milk yield of 40±3 kg/d and a Days in Milk (DIM) value of 289±29.4 kg.
Factors Affecting Milk Yield in Cholistani Cows
Results from a study of 374 crossbred cows, consisting of Friesian and Sahiwal/Cholistani breeds, revealed that the average milk yield was 44,967 kg per year. An elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow at the Govt. Jugaitpir Farm had an impressive milk yield of 15-18 L per day. Factors such as season of calving, period of calving, cow and parity were found to affect the milk yield. Furthermore, the heritability of lactation persistency in Sahiwal cows was found to be very high. Actual lactation milk yield for three Sahiwal and Cholistani cows was 1385 ± 46, 1121 ± 92 and 1792 ± 100 L respectively.
Feeding Habits of Cholistani Cows
The livestock population in Pakistan was estimated to be 12,09528 in 2006, with 47% of this population being cattle. Cholistani cattle make up a significant portion of the dairy industry in Pakistan and have seen improvements in their feeding and breeding management as well as culling to increase their milk yield. The average daily milk yield for Cholistani cows is 8.72 litres, while other breeds like Red Sindhi and Mahi contribute 0.43% to the organized sector of milk production. In order to meet the increasing demands for food, energy efficient pasteurization plants are needed that can cater to buffaloes and Sahiwal and Cholistani breeds of cattle. The Government Jugaitpir Farm has a highly productive elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow with 15-18 litres per day for milking purposes.
Quality and Nutritional Content of Cholistani Cow Milk
Cholistani cattle are an elite breed of dairy cattle found in Pakistan. They have medium-sized udders with milk yields varying from 1200 to 1800 litres per lactation. Their average body weight is between 450 and 500 kilograms. Cholistani cows produce between 15 and 18 liters of milk a day, which is maintained at the Chaptel Nutrition Dairy Feed Wanda.
There is a close relationship between Cholistani cattle, Bos indicus, and Bos taurus. Selection of this breed has been used to improve milk production in buffaloes and local dairy cattle breeds such as Sahtwal, Dhanni, Dajal and Rojhan. Studies have shown that potential milk production losses from each cow infected with SCM can be as high as 2 points. Furthermore, a 0.2 point mutation has been observed in the Cholistani cow breed and a 0.5 point replacement in terms of quality food into energy-dense fat for better milk quality.
Serum testosterone levels have also been observed in black-spotted Cholistani bulls; levels range from 6.9 to 0.3 ng/mL. The effect of udder health on milk quantity, quality, and production attributes such as heat stress on production has also been studied in Cholistani cows using the Probe EC count-meter CT-3031 to measure EC while the quality of milk was measured by Probe Multivariate analysis of Cholistani cattle in Punjab District
Maintaining Optimal Health Conditions for Cholistani Cows
The Cholistani cow is a breed indigenous to Pakistan and is known for its high milk yield of 15-18 liters per day. This was reported in an extensive study conducted between 1984-1999 at the Government Livestock Farm, Jugaitpeer in Bahawalpur. The IFCN researchers also reported on the local Sahiwal, Cholistani and Red Sindi cattle breeds. In order to improve milk production, F1 cross-bred cows are supplied with exotic dairy animals. Keeping in mind the prevailing climatic conditions, a brown speckled Cholistani cow was used for this study and it produced an average lactation yield of 1029.68 kgs. According to Annexure-6 (Guideline for Maintaining Animal Health), there was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at the farm. In 2008, a research was conducted on male calves fed fattening ration under milk marketing chain which showed that average lactation yield of Sahiwal cows is 2325 kilo grams. Thus it can be concluded that the Cholistani cow is primarily used for milk production and has proven to be a successful breed over time.
Breeding Practices for Maximum Milk Yields
A retrospective study on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in a farm in Pakistan found that, although the milk solids yields of both pure-breds were similar, the milk solids yield of the first cross Jersey was the best. Under the current methods, maximum milk yield was recorded for the fourth parity at 1615 ± 103 L. Milk production average for Red Sindhi was similar to earlier studies. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 litres for Sahiwal cows with a production of 29.4 litres. Crossbreeding between Friesian and Jersey cattle has become popular to increase milk-production and more than two million no specific breed of beef-cattle is present. The least squares means for daily milk yield was 8.72 ± 0.18 liters with β-casein gene being highly present in Cholistani cattle breed of Pakistan. Breeding index and Milk performance index suggest that 1500 kg of milk yield at peak lactation could be achieved by improved breeding methods and societies for buffalo and cattle as well as Smallholder Dairy Farmer Cooperatives are active in Sri Lanka to promote breeding practices amongst farmers.
Vaccination Programs for Cholistani Cows
Pakistan has a long history of working with cattle in order to increase milk production and to raise healthier, more productive animals. This includes the use of the Cholistani cow, a breed of Sahiwal cow which produces above normal quantities of milk. The Government Jugaitpir recently established an elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow with a milk yield of 15-18 L per day for research purposes. This project is also part of an effort to establish a milk supply chain in 10 Districts of Punjab.
In addition, there have been other initiatives taken to improve the quality and yield of dairy-draft or beef-draft breeds. These include progeny testing, fat % evaluation, vaccination and deworming programs as well as feeding cows total mixed rations. The goal is to create cows with consistent milk yields and better fertility or health levels.
Overall, Pakistan has been working hard to improve its cattle breeds over the years in order to produce higher yields and healthier livestock. It is hoped that these efforts will continue in order to ensure a successful dairy industry for years to come.
Monitoring and Tracking Cow Performance
The adoption of automated and real-time monitoring systems for cattle is making meat and milk production more efficient. Through genetic selection, cows are producing more milk in shorter cycles, resulting in more lactations and calves per lifetime. The repeatability estimates for milk yield, lactation length and dry period were 0.162, 0.152 and 0.163 respectively. Staphylococci can affect somatic cell count (SCC) and persistent intramammary infection (IMI) without affecting milk yield or composition. Monitoring milk production and composition during the first few months of lactation can be beneficial in assessing herd performance. Cholistani cows are an elite specimen of brown speckled cattle with a milk yield of 15-18 liters per lactation cycle, as well as other performance factors such as dry period, service period, fat percentage in milk, etc. Average total costs of milk production for buffalo and cow have been estimated at Rs 12835 and Rs 8451 respectively. Various pest control measures for pulse crops such as laser land leveling, irrigation systems etc., have also been employed to improve livestock productivity.
Best Practices to Increase Milk Yields in Cholistani Cows
Cholistani cows are an excellent source of dairy production due to their high quality milk yield and good fat content for human consumption. At the Livestock Production Research Institute in Bahadurnagar, Okara, the Cholistani crossbred cows produce a good first lactation yield. Studies have shown that compared to 10 month lactations, cows with lower peak milk yields can lose 20-160L of milk over 9 months of milking. Cholistani cattle contain β-casein, which is the second most abundant protein in cow’s milk, and is highly polymorphic. A pre-feasibility study was conducted to establish a Dairy Cattle Farm with increased per cow milk production through state of the art farm management. This study also looked at the effect of subclinical mastitis on milk production in Cholistani Cattle. Friesian and Jersey breeds were used for improved milk production, but since no specific beef breeds are present in Pakistan, Cholistanis are used instead. From 1996 to 2002, there was a 17% increase in milk production in Punjab, thanks to local Sahiwal, Cholistani and Red Sindi cattle breeds.
Managing Resources and Labor Costs Efficiently
Cow milk production is a profitable farming activity in irrigated areas of Sindh and mountainous-AJK, with benefit-cost ratios of 1.5. To further increase milk production, a pre-feasibility for setting up a Dairy Cattle Farm has been proposed, which would include state of the art farm management. Previous findings have found that improved reproductive management can lead to increased milk yields per animal.
In 2013-14, milk production in Pakistan increased by 3.2%, while meat production rose by 4.5%. However, animal productivity remains low and needs to be managed effectively, as concentrate feeding is the main cost item for cow milk production in irrigated areas. In Nepal, 1.38 million tons of milk were produced during the 2000s.
SAARC member countries must ensure the sustainable management of their beef cattle and buffalo genetic resources in order to increase yield efficiency and productivity. By understanding their production data and introducing market reforms, this can be achieved more efficiently.
Controlling Parasites and Diseases in Dairy Herds
Dairy farming is an important industry around the world. In order to improve the quality of milk and overall yield, cattle breeders are constantly researching ways to increase production. Nili-Ravi buffaloes, purebred Sahiwal and crossbred cattle are some of the most popular breeds in the dairy industry. Research has shown that grazing reduces foot and leg problems for dairy cows, but can also lower their milk production. Fortunately, there are strategies available to farmers to help improve udder health and reduce inbreeding in dairy cattle breeding programmes. For example, local consultants have developed reports on livestock disease control which focus on increasing milk yield, lactation length and dry period for cows.
The Cholistani cattle breed is popular in Pakistan as its considered an ancestor of the Sahiwal breed. This breed is known for its high lactation yields and fat percentages in milk. Short-term strategies such as improved nutrition have been known to increase their milk production significantly over the past 10 years. Additionally, research has shown that β-casein type found in Cholistani cattle can be used as a parameter when selecting cows with better milk quality and yield. In conclusion, dairy farmers can use a variety of techniques ranging from grazing to improved nutrition to help increase their cows’ production safely while also reducing diseases like mastitis common among dairy herds.
Utilizing Technology to Improve Dairy Management
Precision Dairy Farming is a modern technology used to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators in individual animals. Utilizing this system in combination with RFID technology can generate a cow’s complete milking history and enable higher milk production than traditional grazing practices. For indigenous breeds such as the Sahiwal and Red Sindhi, the primary breeding objective is milk yield and quality. With Cholistani, the focus is on producing male calves. The proposed pre-feasibility is for establishing a Dairy Cattle Farm in Selangor, Malaysia with the aim of increasing national milk production through state of the art farm management. An elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow (Figure 1) has been reported to produce 15–18 L per day at Govt. Jugaitpir. Milk production can be predicted using large-scale data from dairy herd improvement databases which can also act as biomarkers for good farm management. A study was conducted to determine the factors affecting 305-day milk yield of dairy cattle using Regression Tree Analysis which found that double cropping did not result in improved milk yield or components per cow, indicating that other management factors are more important than simply using double cropping for increased milk production.
The Cholistani cow is an indigenous cattle breed native to the Cholistan region of Pakistan. This breed is renowned for its milk yield and reproductive traits, with an average milk yield of 1,000 liters per annum. A recent study conducted on this breed showed that teat length, teat end to floor distance and milk yield were risk factors associated with mastitis in Cholistani cows. An elite specimen of a brown speckled Cholistani cow maintained at Govt. Livestock Farm, Jugaitpeer, Bahawalpur has a milk yield of 15-18 liters per day. The least squares means for milk yield, lactation length and dry period were 1029.68 kg ± 44.35, 209.47 days ± 11.14 and 237.87 days respectively (Figure 1). Friesian X Sahi-wal/Cholistani crossbred cows maintained at the Livestock Production Research Institute in Bahadurnagar (Okara) also show good results in terms of average milk yield (2-3 lit/day). In order to improve the milk production of dairy cattle breeds such as Sahiwal and Cholistani, RCCSC Sire based selection can be used effectively.