What is the difference between a Neli Ravi buffalo and a Sahiwal cow?

Are you a farmer or an animal enthusiast looking to learn more about livestock breeds? If so, you have probably heard of the Neli Ravi buffalo and the Sahiwal cow and may be wondering what sets them apart. In this blog post, we’ll discuss the differences between these two popular livestock breeds.


When it comes to farm animals, there are many different species and breeds to choose from. Among those are the Neli Ravi buffalo and the Sahiwal cow. Both of these animals have been used extensively in farming and dairy production for generations, but they have distinct characteristics which make them better suited for different purposes. In this blog post, we will explore the differences between these two animals, including physical attributes, temperament, milk production and more. We will also compare the cost associated with each breed so that you can make an informed decision when choosing which breed is right for your farm.

General Characteristics of Neli Ravi Buffalo

The Neli Ravi buffalo is a breed of buffalo found primarily in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is a medium-sized animal, typically weighing between 400 to 600 kilograms. The coat is usually a dark gray or sandy color, with some individuals having white patches. The breed is known for its hardiness and disease resistance, as well as its ability to thrive in harsh climates. Neli Ravi buffaloes are also known for their relatively high milk yields, typically producing up to 10 liters per day. They are also known for their docile temperament and intelligence.

General Characteristics of Sahiwal Cow

Sahiwal cows are a medium-sized dairy breed originating in the Punjab region of Pakistan. They have a distinct, light red coat with a white face and white markings on the neck and legs. Sahiwal cows are known for their hardiness and heat tolerance, making them well-suited to the harsh climate of their native region. They also have a relatively docile temperament and are easy to handle. Sahiwal cows are known for their high milk yields, which can reach up to 7,000 liters per lactation. They are also known for their high fat and protein content in their milk, which makes it an excellent choice for cheese production. Sahiwal cows are also known for their long lactation lengths, which can reach up to 300 days.

Differences in Milk Production

When it comes to milk production, there are several differences between Neli Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cows. Buffalo milk typically contains more total proteins and caseins than cow’s milk. However, cow’s milk has the advantage of providing a higher fat percentage, which is beneficial for infant feeding. Furthermore, the protein quality and quantity of milk from different species can vary. A proteomic approach has been used to carry out high-resolution analyses of the complex mixture to quantify the protein profiling in milk from both Neli Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cows. The results revealed that Neli Ravi buffaloes had higher total protein and casein content than Sahiwal cows. Additionally, differences in fat percentage were also observed between the two species.

Difference in Temperament

The Neli Ravi buffalo is known to be a docile and easy-going animal while the Sahiwal cow is known to be more active and energetic. The Neli Ravi is usually content to stay in one place and graze, while the Sahiwal is often seen moving around and seeking out new pastures. The Neli Ravi is also known to be more tolerant of handling and willing to accept humans more easily, making it a better choice for those looking for an animal to keep as a pet. The Sahiwal, on the other hand, is more independent and can be more difficult to handle.

Difference in Adaptability to Climate

The Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is well-suited to the climate of Pakistan, which has hot summers and mild winters. It is well-adapted to the local climate and can survive in extreme temperatures. On the other hand, Sahiwal cows are more tolerant of cold weather. They can tolerate cold weather better than Nili-Ravi buffaloes and are better suited for areas with harsher winters. Sahiwal cows also have a higher disease resistance due to their greater ability to adapt to changing climates.

Difference in Disease Resistance

The Nili-Ravi buffalo is known for their superior disease resistance compared to other dairy breeds. The breed is also resistant to some common diseases like foot and mouth disease, hemorrhagic septicemia, and trypanosomosis. Sahiwal cows, on the other hand, are generally more susceptible to disease due to their size and lack of hardiness. However, they are less prone to certain diseases than other dairy breeds, such as mastitis. Additionally, Sahiwal cows have been known to develop a high resistance to some of the more common diseases in their region, such as ticks and insects.

Difference in Weight and Size

The Neli Ravi buffalo is a large breed and can weigh up to 1,500 kgs. It is the largest of the Indian breeds and the males are usually taller than the females. The Sahiwal cow is a medium-sized breed and typically weighs around 400 to 600 kgs. The cow’s body is slim and tall compared to that of the buffalo, with long legs. The males are usually taller than the females in this breed as well.

Difference in Calving Interval

One of the main differences between a Neli Ravi buffalo and a Sahiwal cow is the calving interval. The pattern of calving was documented in Neli Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey) crosses. It was found that the calving interval in first and later parity was different in Sahiwal cows but not in buffaloes. In addition, the Sahiwal cows had shorter calving intervals than the cross-bred cows. This indicates that the Neli Ravi buffalo may have a longer calving interval than the Sahiwal cow, making it more suitable for dairy production.

Differences In Feed Requirements

Neli Ravi buffaloes have higher feed requirements than Sahiwal cows. Buffalo feed generally consists of hay, grain, and fresh or silage forages. Buffaloes require more protein and energy in their diet than cows. Buffaloes also require more roughage in the form of hay and silage than cows, as they have a higher capacity to digest and utilize fibrous materials. Buffaloes also have a higher specific intake rate, meaning they need more feed per unit of body weight than cows. This is due to their larger digestive systems, which require more energy to digest and absorb feed. In addition, buffaloes need more food during the lactation period than cows because of the higher milk production levels.

Different Maintenance and Grooming Requirements

When it comes to maintenance and grooming, there are some notable differences between a Neli Ravi buffalo and a Sahiwal cow. The Neli Ravi buffalo is a hardy breed and is able to tolerate different weather conditions without much maintenance. However, they do need to be kept in a clean environment and may require regular brushing to keep their coats healthy and free of dirt. On the other hand, the Sahiwal cow requires more regular and intensive grooming and maintenance. They need to be groomed regularly in order to keep their coats healthy and free of dirt, lice, and other parasites. Additionally, Sahiwal cows need to be provided with ample shelter from the elements, as they are more sensitive to extreme temperatures than Neli Ravi buffaloes.

Different Utilization of byproducts from Processing

When it comes to the utilization of byproducts from processing, the Neli Ravi buffalo and the Sahiwal cow have some notable differences. Buffalo milk has the disadvantage of requiring reduction in fat for infant feeding, whereas cow’s milk is often preferred for its higher fat content. In addition, due to the higher fat content of buffalo milk, it is more suitable for cheese production, whereas cow’s milk is better for making yogurt and other fermented dairy products. Moreover, buffalo milk can be used for making soap, detergents, and other cosmetic products.

Cost Comparison for Neli Ravi and Sahiwal Breeds

When it comes to cost comparison between Neli Ravi and Sahiwal breeds, there’s a lot to consider. Neli Ravi buffaloes are generally more expensive than Sahiwal cows for a few reasons. First, buffaloes require more land, feed and maintenance than cows, making them more expensive to keep. Additionally, buffaloes produce less milk than cows, meaning farmers must purchase more of them in order to meet the same production demands. On the other hand, Sahiwal cows produce more milk than buffaloes and require less land, feed and maintenance. This makes them a more cost-effective option for farmers looking to maximize their milk production. In addition to the initial purchase cost, farmers should also factor in the cost of maintaining both breeds into their overall budget.


In conclusion, the Neli Ravi breed of buffalo and the Sahiwal breed of cow have many differences that must be taken into consideration when deciding which breed to raise. The Neli Ravi buffalo produces more milk than the Sahiwal cow, but the cow is easier to care for, requires less maintenance and is more adaptable to different climates. Additionally, the cow is less susceptible to disease, has a shorter calving interval, and is capable of producing higher quality milk. The Sahiwal cow also yields more byproducts from processing than the Neli Ravi buffalo. Ultimately, cost should also be considered when selecting which breed to raise. The Neli Ravi buffalo requires more intensive care and feeding than the Sahiwal cow, and is generally more expensive to maintain in the long run.

Types of Cows Suitable for Dairy Farming

Are you thinking about starting a dairy farm? Are you wondering which cows are best suited for this type of farming? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’ve rounded up the top types of cows that are suitable for dairy farming, along with their characteristics and benefits. Read on to learn more!

Introduction to Dairy Cows

Dairy farming is an important part of the agricultural industry, providing nutritious milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products to consumers around the world. The success of a dairy farm depends largely on the cows that are used to produce the milk. Choosing the right breed of cow for a dairy farm is essential for maximizing milk production and ensuring a healthy herd.

There are numerous breeds of cows that are suitable for dairy farming, with each breed having its own unique traits and characteristics. Some of the most common breeds of dairy cows include Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Milking Shorthorn, Norwegian Red, Fleckvieh, Montbéliarde, Normande, Red Dane, and Hereford.

Each of these breeds has been selectively bred over centuries to produce more milk than their wild ancestors. Many of these cows have also been bred to thrive in certain climates and soil types. Understanding the different characteristics of these breeds can help you make the best decision when selecting cows for your dairy farm.

Holstein Cows

Holstein cows, also known as Holstein-Friesian, are the most popular dairy cows for milk production. These cows are easily identified by their distinctive black and white coat pattern. Holsteins are known for producing large amounts of milk, with an average yield of up to 8,000 pounds of milk per lactation. They also have great feed efficiency and a long productive life span, making them an ideal choice for dairy farms. Holsteins are also relatively easy to manage, and their comparatively low maintenance makes them a popular breed for commercial dairy operations.

Jersey Cows

Jersey cows are a breed of dairy cow that originated in the British Isles. They are known for their high milk production and strong constitution, making them ideal for dairy farming. Jersey cows produce up to 12,000 pounds of milk per lactation and are known for their high levels of butterfat, averaging about 5%. This makes them well suited for making cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products. They are known for their docile temperament and intelligence, making them easy to handle and train. Jersey cows are also known for their hardiness and ability to thrive in less-than-ideal conditions.

Brown Swiss Cows

Brown Swiss cows are a dual-purpose breed of cattle, originally from Switzerland. They are known for their longevity and productive milk production. Brown Swiss cows have excellent udders and are easy to milk. The milk they produce is high in fat and protein, making it ideal for cheese-making. They are also strong, hardy animals that can adapt to different climates and grazing conditions. Brown Swiss cows are a popular choice for organic dairy farms looking for a high-yielding cow that is also gentle and easy to handle.

Ayrshire Cows

Ayrshires are a medium-sized dairy breed known for their hardiness and adaptability. This breed is well suited to dairy farming, as they produce good-quality milk with a high butterfat content. Ayrshires are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to manage. They are also known to be very efficient grazers and can produce milk with a low somatic cell count. The average milk production of Ayrshire cows is around 5,000 kilograms of milk per lactation.

Guernsey Cows

Guernsey cows are a small breed of dairy cows, originating in the Channel Island of Guernsey. They are known for their rich, creamy milk, which is higher in butterfat and protein than many other breeds. Guernsey cows produce about 6,000 to 8,000 pounds of milk per year. They are known for their docile nature and easygoing temperament, making them well suited for small farms. Guernsey cows are a hardy breed and can tolerate extreme weather conditions, making them an ideal choice for dairy farmers in cold climates. They have an average lifespan of 10 to 12 years.

Milking Shorthorn Cows

Milking Shorthorn cows are another popular breed for dairy farming. These cows have the ability to produce a high quantity of milk and are known for their longevity in the milking parlor. They are an efficient breed and can produce up to 4,000 kgs of milk per lactation. This breed is also known to have a good temperament, which makes them easy to handle. Milking Shorthorns are known for their hardiness and adaptability to any environment, making them suitable for dairy production in all climates.

Norwegian Red Cow

The Norwegian Red cow is a dual-purpose breed, suitable for both meat and milk production. This hardy breed is known for its ability to thrive on rough forage and produce high quality milk with a high fat content. Norwegian Red cows have an average milk production of around 5,500 lbs per lactation, with some cows producing up to 8,000 lbs in a single lactation. Norwegian Red cows also have a good temperament and are known to be of good health. As a result, they are an increasingly popular choice for dairy farms across the world.

Fleckvieh Cow

The Fleckvieh cow, also known as the Simmental-Fleckvieh, is a dual-purpose breed originating from Switzerland. It is a large breed, typically weighing between 1,200 and 1,600 kilograms. Fleckvieh cattle are known for their docility and are relatively easy keepers. The breed produces an average of 6,000 kilograms of milk in a single lactation, with protein content around 3.6%. The Fleckvieh breed is also well suited for meat production, with the bulls reaching an average weight of 1,000 kilograms when fully grown. Fleckvieh cows are known for their adaptability to different climates and feed types and are often used in cross-breeding programs. For these reasons, the Fleckvieh breed is becoming increasingly popular among dairy farmers.

Montbéliarde Cow

Montbéliarde cows are a French breed that is especially suitable for dairy production. They are particularly known for their high milk yields and have an average of 6,000 kilograms of milk produced per lactation. Montbéliarde cows are known for their hardiness, longevity, and ability to produce a high-quality, creamy milk. They are also renowned for their docile and calm temperaments. Montbéliarde cows are well adapted to different climates and climates, making them an ideal choice for dairy farming.

Normande Cow

The Normande breed of dairy cow is a dual-purpose breed, capable of producing both meat and milk. The breed is native to Normandy in France, where it is known as the ‘La race Normande’. It is a hardy breed, with a long lifespan and high disease resistance. The cow has a light brown coat with white or cream spots, or a solid white or cream coat. It has a medium-sized frame and is able to produce around 4,800 pounds of milk per year. The milk produced by this cow contains a high butterfat content, making it an ideal choice for cheese making. The Normande cow is also known for its docile temperament, making them well-suited for the dairy farm environment.

Red Dane Cow

Red Dane cows are a breed of dairy cattle that originated in Denmark and are known for their ability to produce large quantities of milk. This breed is also known for its strong milk production, with an average yield of over 6000 kg per lactation. This breed is known to be highly adaptable to different climates and terrain, making them an ideal choice for farmers in a variety of regions. As with all dairy cows, Red Dane cows require a balanced diet of hay, grain, and minerals for optimal milk production. They are medium-sized cows with red or black and white markings, and have a docile temperment. Red Dane cows are known for their hardiness and longevity, often living for over 20 years.

Hereford Cow

The Hereford cow is a dual-purpose British breed, suitable for both beef and milk production. Known for its hardiness, the Hereford is a medium-sized breed which is easy to handle and can adapt to various climates. It has a light-red colour with a white face and white markings on the feet and legs. The average milk production of a Hereford cow is about 6000 liters per lactation. The breed is known for its good udder health and strong hooves, making it a good choice for farmers looking for a cow that can withstand harsh conditions. Additionally, the Hereford has a good feed conversion rate, meaning it can produce more milk with less feed.

Simmental Cow

The Simmental cow is a dual-purpose breed suitable for both meat and milk production. This breed has a high milk yield, with an average of 4,700 kg of milk produced per lactation. They are known for their hardiness and robustness, which makes them well-suited for organic dairy farms. Simmental cows have a docile temperament, making them easy to handle and manage. Their adaptability to different climates and environments makes them ideal for farmers looking to maximize their milk production in any region. With their strong maternal instincts, they also make excellent mothers and can produce calves with high growth rates.

Limousin Cow

Limousin cows are a breed of cattle that originated in Limousin, France. They are well-known for their beef production and are used for both milk and beef production. Limousin cows have a distinctive red or yellowish-brown coat, with a white underbelly, muzzle and legs. They are medium-sized cows with a short neck and thick muscles. Limousin cows are known for their hardiness and durability, as well as their longevity. They are also known for their good temperaments and ease of handling. Limousin cows often produce high quality milk that can be used to make butter, cheese, and other dairy products. Their meat is known for its flavor, tenderness, and marbling, making it ideal for use in premium cuts of beef.

Best Cows for Dairy Farming in Pakistan

If you’re in the market for cows for dairy farming, then you’ve come to the right place. Pakistan has a long and proud history of dairy farming, and we’ve rounded up the best breeds for optimal production. Read on to discover which cows are best suited for your needs!

Introduction to Dairy Farming in Pakistan

Pakistan is a country that relies heavily on its livestock sector, with milk being the largest and single most important commodity. In recent years, commercial dairy farming has become a viable business proposition for peri-urban areas of the country due to high demand for milk in these areas.

Crossbred animals are mostly preferred for commercial dairy farms as they produce more milk than their local counterparts like Sahiwal and Red Sindhi cows. It is worth noting that eight Pakistani milking animals produce the same amount of milk as one milking animal from a developed country.

Currently, there are 8 million farming households in Pakistan with a total herd size of 29 million animals. Smallholder dairy farmers in Pakistan are usually unorganized and mostly carry out production and marketing independently from each other.

A typical rural commercial dairy farm running on a commercial basis consists of about 30 animals, 70% of which are females, including some cows. Furthermore, Pakistan has started modern dairy farming by importing global cow breeds mainly Holstein Frisian of different origins.

Types of Cows Suitable for Dairy Farming in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to many indigenous breeds of cows that are highly suited for profitable dairy farming. The top 5 breeds of cows for dairy farming in Pakistan are Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Red Sindhi, and Dutch Holstein Friesian. These breeds are known for their high milk production rates and low maintenance costs, making them a great option for peri-urban areas with higher milk demand. In addition, they require less capital investment to set up a Controlled Shed Dairy Farm with 100 cows. A typical rural commercial dairy farm can consist of up to 30 animals, including some cows and 70% female animals. Pakistan is also fortunate enough to have two of the best sub-tropical buffalo breeds in the world – Nili-Ravi and Sahiwal – which are known for their strong dairy merits. All these factors make these indigenous breeds ideal for successful dairy farming in the country.

Holstein Friesian Cow

The Holstein Frisian is a world-renowned dairy cow that originates from the Netherlands, the second-largest agricultural exporter in the world. This breed has been perfected to produce more than 100,000kgs of milk and 10,000kgs of fats and proteins during its lifetime with an average supreme quality.

In Pakistan, setting up a dairy farm with 100 cows requires an investment of approximately Rs.31%. Initially a dual-purpose breed used for both dairy and beef production, Dutch and German breeders developed it to maximize its potential. The country produces 65 million litres of cow’s milk per year, accounting for one-third of the total milk produced in the country. Organic farms producing milk for systems that recompense milk volume benefit from using higher yielding cows like Holstein Friesian.

These cows are resistant to stress and have a herd mentality; they are not solitary animals. They also enjoy the privilege of being one of the most modern dairy setups in Pakistan with 1500 heads in their herd. Additionally, crossbreeds have been developed by combining different breeds like Jersey, Brown Swiss or Holstein Friesian for even better results.

Jersey Cow

Commercial dairy farming is a lucrative business opportunity for the peri-urban areas of Pakistan, as there is a higher demand for milk in these areas. Cows must calve to produce milk and the lactation cycle is the period between first calving and the next calving. Small holder dairy farms in the humid tropics with good feeding and management can get excellent yields. The Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle symbolizes the best germplasm in India and Pakistan as far as dairy merits are concerned due to its tick-resistance, heat-tolerance, high resistance to parasites, and excellent milk yield of 20 litres/day. Crossbred dairy cattle have been imported from Denmark to further increase milk production. By using individual animal identification systems and production systems, we help livestock farmers become some of the best performing farmers in organic dairy farms producing milk. Rustic Holstein-Friesian cows with an age at first calving of 26-30 months provides an average yield of 5000-8000 kgs/lactation cycle which rewards milk volume producers more than other breeds.

Sahiwal Cow

The Sahiwal is a breed of zebu cattle that originated from the Sahiwal District of Pakistan. It has since become one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan due to its heat tolerance, high milk production and calm demeanor when it comes to milking. Its genetic and environmental causes of variation in body weight and reproduction, as well as its relationship to other breeds in the region, have been studied extensively. The Sahiwal cow is known for its high milk yield, producing up to eight litres per day. This makes it a friend to dairy farmers, yet it is also a conservator of the breed that deserves recognition for its contributions. Through pedigree and performance records from Allahdad Cattle Farm in Jahanian, District Multan, the importance of this breed continues to be highlighted as it expands beyond India and Pakistan into other Asian countries as well as Africa.

Red Sindhi Cow

The Red Sindhi is a hardy, heat-resistant breed of zebu cattle originating in the Sindh province of Pakistan. This breed has spread to many parts of the world due to its high milk yields and has been used for dairy production in Pakistan, India, Canada, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Africa. On average, these cows produce 12 liters of milk per day – making them a valued source of dairy products. They are also referred to as Red Karachi, Sindhi and Mahi and were originally reared in Karachi and Hyderabad regions of undivided India. Pakistani livestock production is heavily reliant on Red Sindhi cattle for dairy purposes – both purebreds and crossbreeds have been known to calve normally.

Droughtmaster Cow

Beef cattle in Pakistan have been traditionally raised for producing bullocks, with breeds such as the Australian Droughtmaster being popular choices. However, due to a lack of means to identify the best animals, the best young males are often sold for beef. To make the most out of these animals, genetic merit is evaluated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP), with three main breeds – Hereford, Shorthorn and Droughtmaster – being used. These breeds are also known for their tick-tolerance.

The Droughtmaster is a large breed that matures at medium-to-slightly late stages. In Malaysia, Dutch Holstein Friesian cows are bred for beef production and profit. To make use of collated information on production traits for grazing beef cattle, it is important to have knowledge on development strategies like genetic evaluation of cattle and buffalo.

In 2003, the Lai Sind herd accounted for 30% of the total cattle population in Pakistan and was seen as good genetic material for dairy development. The Sindhi cattle from this herd produced some of the best results when crossbred with Bhagnari or other British breeds like Dairy Shorthorn.

Guernsey Cow

The Guernsey cow is the ideal breed for intensive, pasture-based milk production. Mature cows weigh 1,300 to 1,500 lbs and produce high-quality milk with a butterfat content of 5% and a protein content of 3.7%. Every year, the 15 dairy farms on Guernsey keep around 2,500 cows and farm almost 8,000 vergees of land for dairy production. On average, each cow produces 6,000 litres of milk per year. For organic farmers looking for highly productive cattle breeds, the cross-breeding of Holstein-Friesian and local breeds is a great option.

The Sahiwal is another high-quality dairy breed with attributes like tick resistance, heat tolerance and an impressive resistance to parasites. Many tropical countries prefer Normande cows as they are known for their dual purpose capabilities; being both vigorous and good at foraging. Ayrshire milk also stands out due to its 4.1% butterfat content. No matter what type of cow you are looking for, these three breeds make excellent choices when it comes to producing quality milk..

Brown Swiss Cow

The Dutch Holstein Friesian cow is a top choice for both small-scale and commercial dairy operations in Holland. This breed is known for their robustness, prolific breeding, long life span, strong build, adaptability and well-balanced hooves and limbs. A mature Holstein cow typically weighs 1,300-1,500 lbs and can produce between 7200-9000 kgs of milk during its first lactation. Crossbreeding indigenous cattle with exotic breeds like the Holstein has been underway in Pakistan for the last four decades to create crossbreeds which inherit traits from breeds like Jersey, Brown Swiss or Holstein Friesian. Veepro Holland is the Information Center for Dutch breeding cattle and small Dutch Holstein Friesian cows have their origin in the high-quality genetic selection that has been made over decades. The Holstein breed is widely regarded as one of the best in the world when it comes to milk production.

Ayrshire Cow

The Ayrshire is a moderate butterfat breed known for its high milk production, with top producing Ayrshires regularly exceeding 20,000 pounds of milk in their lactations. In Pakistan, crossbreeding activity began on military dairy farms in the 1970s and Ayrshires are now becoming the number one choice. The proposed pre-feasibility is for the establishment of Dairy Cattle Farms in Pakistan, which has a wide scope of Milk Production and ranks 3rd in the world. While Holsteins are the most common breed used for milk production due to their large size and black spots, Ayrshires offer excellent pasture performance and are ideal for small-scale farmers. Around 90-98% of cows milked in study areas were indigenous Bos Indicus cattle, while other 2-10% were crossbred Bos Taurus cattle including those with Ayrshire genes. There are 8 million farming households in Pakistan with a total herd size of 50 million animals, making it one of the highest cattle densities in the world. The Ayrshire breed was developed in the county of Ayr, Scotland and where cattle management is good they can perform up to 33% better than other breeds such as Sahiwal and Ahlawat.


Pakistan is home to a large population of dairy livestock, making it one of the top-five countries in milk production. However, these animals have low milk yields due to poor farming practices. In order to modernize dairy farming and increase milk production, there is a need for better breed diversity and improved farming techniques.

Currently, buffalo contribute the most to total milk production in Pakistan, followed by cattle and sheep/goat. Livestock production has increased by about 30% over the last few decades due to advancements in dairy farming methods. In the future, it is estimated that milk production per cow will double with the help of modernized dairying practices in developing countries like Pakistan.

Peri-urban areas have higher demand for milk, making commercial dairy farming a viable business proposition for these areas. With good farming experience and improved techniques, farmers can increase their yields and benefit from this industry.

What are the Special Characteristics of a Cow in Pakistan?

If you’re curious about the special characteristics of cows in Pakistan, you’ve come to the right place! In this blog post, we’ll explore the unique traits that make Pakistani cows unique and talk about how they have adapted to their environment. We’ll also discuss why these cows are important for the country and what makes them such an integral part of Pakistani culture.


Pakistan is home to 15 cattle breeds, including the Sahiwal, Red Sindhi and Cholistani. The Sahiwal is a breed of zebu cow, named after an area in the Punjab region of Pakistan. It has been bred for its milking ability in Pakistan and for its beefing qualities in Australia, and has been exported to Africa as well. Sahiwal cattle are deep bodied and powerful draft animals with a brownish red to greyish red coat. They have also been used as dairy animals due to their excellent milking qualities. In recent times, India and Pakistan have several diverse types of cattle, some with distinctive characteristics like body length that are rare in other local breeds.

Buffalo is the major dairy animal in Pakistan, contributing the most to total milk production followed by cattle and sheep/goat. To promote their economic traits, breeding programs have been developed for these animals. With this aim in mind, principal component analysis has been conducted on traits such as body length to improve the quality of Pakistani buffaloes.

Body Structure

Sahiwal cattle are an indigenous breed of dairy animals native to India and Pakistan. They have a medium-sized, compact body with lyre-shaped horns, and are usually white or light grey in color. Their hump is prominent, and the udder is small and tucked up against the body. The hooves and muzzle may be black or brown. Gaolao is a type of Sahiwal cattle.

Cattle are large, domesticated herbivores from the subfamily Bovinae. They were independently domesticated from wild aurochs in Turkey and are now found in many countries around the world. Cows have two cloven hooves (split into two toes), making them members of the order Artiodactyla. Cattle are significant for their production capabilities as well as their cultural role in many societies. There have been numerous breeds developed over time that differ in size, color, shape, conformation, milk production rate, resistance to diseases, etc., allowing farmers to select the best traits for their herds.

The heritability of body weight traits ranges from 0·08 to 0·21 in Sahiwal cattle, while milk production rates can reach up to 3.41 ± 1.53 liters per day on average for selected buffalo cows. Population structure of the breed shows considerable genetic variability among various populations which suggests that there is much potential for further development through selective breeding programs.

Hair Texture and Color

The Nelore is a breed of Bos indicus cattle native to India and Pakistan. It is recognizable by its white coat with a characteristic hump above its shoulders, as well as its loose skin. The horns are broad at the base and taper up and inward in a fish hook shape. Bulls are grey with dark colour in their hump, fore and hind quarters, while cows have smaller udders tucked up with the body. Hooves and muzzles are usually black or brown in colour.

The Holstein is the heaviest breed of dairy cow, known for its large udder and colour-related traits. Nelore cattle are also used for beef production, with production characteristics such as coat color (-0.06) and coat thickness influencing reproductive performance. Sahiwal cattle were once ordinary draft animals but their dairy qualities make them one of the best dairy animals existing in India and Pakistan today.

Head Shape and Horns

The Zebu cattle is a medium sized, strong dual-type animal originating from the lower Himalayas. It is migratory, with white fur and lyre-shaped horns. The head of the Zebu is of medium size, with a broad and flat forehead. Its horns are curved upward and inward, in a sickle shape. More than half of these cattle have short horns that are slightly curled and pointed in shape. They also possess pigmented skin, which adds to its distinctive black body. Horns are an important physical feature of these cows, being broad at the base while tapering upwards and inward (in a fish hook pattern). Due to breeding with polled foundation females in the US, some Gelbviehs have become naturally polled (without horns).

Dairy Production

Milk production in Pakistan is an important sector for the country’s agricultural industry. It is estimated that around 34 million tons of milk are produced annually, with 58 percent of that coming from buffaloes and 35 percent from cows. Small and medium-sized dairy farms are the primary source of this milk production, with an average farm consisting of 30 animals – 70 percent of which are female.

Cows and buffaloes are the major producers of milk in Pakistan, with cows providing a productive life span of about 8 years per animal. The Allahabad Agricultural Institute in India has been actively engaged in breeding cattle for dairy production purposes. One technique used to assess the quality of dairy cattle is linear scoring, which looks at a range of traits to determine overall suitability as a milk producer.

When compared to the developed world, however, Pakistan still lags behind in terms of overall dairy production; it is estimated that the country produces approximately 5-6 times less than those nations. This could be due to persistent drought conditions reducing lactation periods and resulting in lower quality and quantity of milk produced. Despite this, Pakistan remains committed to strengthening its dairy sector through initiatives like those provided by the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (Smeda).

Feeding Habits

Cattle are a species of domesticated animals that have been selectively bred for centuries to provide humans with milk, meat, and labor. The most common cattle type is the dairy cow, which has been bred to produce high yields of milk. Cows also serve as draft animals and are used in many parts of the world to pull carts or plows. Cattle behavior can vary from individual to individual, especially when confronted with changes in diet or environment.

In this study, 340 dairy cows were identified and characterized into three different categories: 20% high efficient (HE), 20% low efficient (LE) and 60% mid efficient (ME). Milk composition varies significantly among species; for example, buffalo milk contains 58% more calcium and 40% more protein than cow milk but 43% less cholesterol.

The modern dairy cow was originally domesticated from aurochs—a wild bovine species—in the vicinity of Turkey, Sindh (Pakistan), Kutch, Jodhpur, and Jaisalmer desert areas of India. Bullocks are slow workers but cows are good at feeding behavior and browsing on twigs. Beef cows graze on forage from grasslands to sustain themselves and raise a calf without any grain input. One unique feature inside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these cows is cud chewing—the regurgitation and re-chewing of food—which helps them digest their food better. The Sahiwal cattle breed from India

Breeding Practices

Cattle in India and Pakistan have long been a source of important production traits like milk and fat yield, and body weight. The Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle are recognized for their dairy merits in both countries. They are powerful draft animals and have deep bodies. In recent times, further advances have been made in Indian and Pakistani cattle breeds with the introduction of the Kankrej breed. Results from farming systems show that these morphological characteristics significantly vary between sexes, particularly cows. Therefore, crossbreeding techniques such as breeding Red Sindhi bulls to higher producing Jersey cows at an early age can be utilized to improve production traits. In the USA, Brahman Breeds developed from Indian cattle germplasm are the basis of a successful meat industry. The Bhag Nari breed also has great potential to be a beef breed if advanced selection techniques are used. Visible characteristics of this breed include prominent humps, small tucked up udders, black or brown hooves and muzzles, and Gaolao horns. Unfortunately, there is no specific beef-cattle breed present in Pakistan yet; however, some local breeds do possess excellent characteristics as listed in Table 2.

Herding Behavior

The Holstein breed is one of the most popular dairy breeds in the world, with a history stretching back over 2000 years. It is renowned for its high milk production and other desirable traits. In this study, preferences of farmers for breeding goal traits with Danish Red (DR) or Danish Jersey (DJ) were characterized.

In developing countries like India and Pakistan, there are numerous types of cattle with unique characteristics. In the mountain regions of northern Pakistan, pastures are used to keep herds of sheep, goats, and cattle. Herding dogs have been bred to respond to the commands of herders in order to control these animals.

Selective breeding has played an important role in producing healthier and more productive cows. The first herd book was set up by a breeder at Villars near the village of Magny-Cours in 1864 for the Holstein breed. Heifers born on dairy farms are mostly reared for potential cow replacements rather than for meat production.

This research paper addresses the hypothesis that cow introductions in dairy herds affect milk production and behaviour of animals by taking into account various factors such as herd size, year, age, season, lactation length, days dry, days open and calving interval into consideration. The aim is to optimize cow and herd welfare in Asian countries by understanding dairy cow behaviour better.

Adaptability to Climate Changes

The dairy sector in Pakistan has been facing severe challenges and threats due to changing climatic conditions and inadequate fodder availability. In order to assess the impact of climate change on the sector, research was conducted to estimate the effects of implementing on-farm adaptation strategies for two staple crops: wheat and rice.

To have a better understanding of the attitudes of farmers towards adaptation to climate change, a well-structured questionnaire was used to interview 450 dairy households from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab province.

Ruminants, pigs and poultry are all susceptible to heat stress due to their high metabolic rate and growth. Holstein–Friesian dairy cows are renowned for their milk production but highly vulnerable to heat stress (HS). When the ambient temperature is over certain threshold, these animals can suffer from excessive heat load.

Climate change can directly hamper livestock productivity by reducing their morphological adaptive trait which imparts their adaptive ability. Rising temperatures and unpredictable weather patterns also have a drastic effect on livestock production. ADB initiatives in Pakistan are thus focusing on developing sector-specific adaptation technologies that can help reduce climate risks. Further research is needed in order to identify any potential gaps in this field.

Health Issues of Cows in Pakistan

In Pakistan, Bovine diseases and syndromes such as mastitis, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and hemorrhagic septicaemia are prevalent. These diseases are caused by Theileriosis, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis which are transmitted by blood-feeding insects. The clinical signs of these diseases include circular lesions on the skin of cattle and water buffaloes. In order to combat these issues, researchers have studied the genetic and environmental causes of variation in milk production traits of Sahiwal cattle. Other serious health issues in the country include Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Parturient Hemoglobinuria, Bovine Viral Diarrhea, and the spread of vector-borne diseases such as LSD.

In the US beef cattle industry there is a division between cow-calf producers and cattle feeding operations. The industry is also affected by persistent drought conditions which lead to reduced lactation periods and decreases in milk production quantity and quality. This has become a major issue for global cattle business with embargoes on international trade being imposed in response.

Disease Resistant Capacity in Pakistani Cows

Pakistan is home to a variety of cattle breeds, each with its own unique traits and advantages. The dry period for most breeds is generally 2-3 months, while the calving interval ranges from 13-15 months. Among these breeds, the Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle symbolizes the best germplasm in terms of disease resistance and adaptability to heat. In Balochistan and North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) buffalo meat is preferred to the cattle beef, as it is considered to be free of disease.

Cattle are an important species for livestock production and play a significant role in human culture. Unfortunately, four main TBDs (anaplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis, and cowdriosis/heartwater) affect bovines globally. It is believed that disease resistance in cattle depends on several factors including adaptability and environmental conditions.

The population of buffaloes, cattle, and goats in Pakistan has been steadily increasing over time (Table 2). This increase highlights the remarkable revolution in Pakistan’s dairy sector which has led to self-sufficiency in dairy house temperatures. Shakir Umer Gujjar, president of Pakistan’s Dairy and Cattle Farmers Association based in Karachi said that this increase will help create a more efficient dairy sector.

Significance of Cows in Pakistani Culture and History

Cattle are an integral part of the Indian and Pakistani economy, providing food, labor, and other products. They are among the most important livestock species in the region due to their production capabilities and cultural significance. Local breeds such as the Red Sindhi are present in India and Pakistan, each with unique characteristics that have been bred over time. Cattle are often used as draft animals to plow fields, provide energy-dense muscle and milk, and other uses.

In Pakistan, livestock is mainly composed of cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep. Meat is highly preferred by Pakistani consumers depending on culture and availability. Despite having a large population of dairy livestock in the country, Pakistan is ranked in the top five cattle-exporting countries globally. Commercial dairy farms typically consist of 30 animals with 70 percent being females including cows that produce milk which can be used for cheese-making or other products.

Recently 2,078 U.S cattle were shipped to Pakistan bringing new opportunities to the dairy sector due to their unique characteristics regarding welfare standards for both dogs and cattle in terms of health care needs and humane management practices such as housing conditions. The shipment will help boost agricultural productivity for local farmers who depend on cattle for their livelihoods.

Popular Domestic Breeds in Pakistan

Pakistan is home to a variety of cattle breeds, including the Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sindhi, Achai, Bhagnari, Dajal, Dhanni, Gibrali, Kankraj, Lohani and Rojhan. These breeds are used for milk and dairy production as well as draft purposes. The physical characteristics of the breed vary from breed to breed. The Sahiwal cattle have a massive jet-black body with broad horns that are shaped like fishhooks at the base and taper up and inwards. The Red Sindhi cows have a grey-white colour with darker shades on their forequarters and hindquarters in males. Adult females tend to be more whitish in appearance. Meanwhile, Bhagnari cattle are known for their strong bodies suitable for work purposes such as ploughing fields or transporting goods over long distances.

The dung excreted by these breeds also helps provide valuable insight into their genetic makeup and relationship to milk production. This information can be used to classify the various breeds based on their history and local aurochs contribution. Furthermore, it can help us understand how genetic and environmental factors influence body weight and reproduction.

Challenges Faced by the Cow Ownership in Pakistan

Buffaloes and cows are the major milk-producing animals in Pakistan, with 55 million smallholder farmers responsible for the bulk of production. Poor milk yields from indigenous breeds remain constant at 1800 L for buffaloes and 1195 L for cows. This low yield per cow negatively impacts the national production, leading to issues with quality and adulteration. Sheep, on the other hand, are widely present in central and northern Pakistan and their wool is exported in large quantities. Among local cow breeds, the Tharparkar is found in Tharparkar District of Sind (Pakistan) and Kutch, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer desert area of India. Bullocks are slow workers while cows can produce better yields but often face calving difficulties that lead to lighter calves with higher mortality rates. In order to combat these issues, a comprehensive action plan was approved with specific timelines and interventions outlined to address yield gaps and particular issues.


This paper evaluates the morphological characteristics of a cattle breed under two different farming systems. Physical characteristics of the breed include a massive jet-black body, broad horns at the base that taper up and inward in a fish hook shape. Male cattle were found to have higher height at withers, chest girth, and length compared to females.

Sahiwal cattle have been appreciated for their dairy qualities and were once ordinary draft animals. Numerous factors are involved in improving livestock prospects, such as large cattle populations, huge agricultural production for economic traits, and proper animal husbandry management. In Pakistan there is no specific breed of beef-cattle, so understanding the productivity of existing stock is important for maintaining unique traits for dairy and beef production.

Dutch Dairy Cattle in Pakistan

Are you interested in learning about the dairy industry in Pakistan? Have you heard about the introduction of Dutch dairy cattle to Pakistan? In this blog post, we’ll take a look at the impact these cows have had on the country’s dairy industry and how they are helping to modernize and improve it.

Introduction to Dutch Dairy Cattle in Pakistan

Pakistan has taken a major step forward in the dairy sector with the introduction of Dutch Heifers from CowEx – Cloud. These world-class dairy cattle provide an opportunity to boost the country’s growing dairy sector. The Government of Pakistan has adopted policies to facilitate the involvement of private sector in the Pakistani dairy chain. This will help share expertise between Dutch and Pakistani farming systems and support sustainable food production in the future.

Most of Pakistan’s dairy animals are found in Punjab and Sindh, which contribute 57% and 25% respectively. Five milk producing provinces including Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Jammu Kashmir, Islamabad Capital Territory and Gilgit-Baltistan also have dairy farms. In August 2020, Flanders made an effort to connect Dutch farmers with those participating in Pakistan’s dairy industry.

Nutrient efficiency is a key factor for optimal performance in dairy farming. The Netherlands has some of the highest productivity growth in agricultural land within the European Union (EU). Dutch cows also have high animal welfare standards due to their use of animal manure.

Dairy farming plays an important role in providing food security for developing countries like Pakistan. It is estimated that 70% of livestock owners own fewer than five animals, making it difficult for them to access markets or benefit from economies of scale. With proper investment and policy support, these small-scale farmers can improve their livelihoods by expanding their operations and reaping greater benefits

History of the Dutch Dairy Cattle in Pakistan

Pakistan is increasingly relying on Dutch breeding cattle to meet their high demand for quality dairy products. For over 11 years, Arabian traders have been importing Indo-Pakistani zebu cattle from the Netherlands. This has been a major factor in the growth of the Pakistani dairy industry, which now boasts 8 million farming households and a total herd size of 50 million animals.

The majority of these farmers are not linked to formal markets, meaning that they are unable to access world-class Dutch dairy cattle. This presents a unique opportunity for them, as the Netherlands is renowned for producing some of the highest quality milk-producing cows in the world – such as their famous Holstein Friesian breeds. In addition, thousands of people living in rural Pakistan rely on livestock as a main source of income – providing an additional incentive for them to take advantage of this opportunity.

In order to ensure that Pakistani farmers can make the most out of this situation, many experts have been travelling from Turkey to Pakistan to offer training in advanced dairy farming practices. This has helped contribute towards an increase in cow milk production from 20.903 thousand tonnes in 2019/20 to 21.288 thousand tonnes in 2020/21 – a rise which further highlights the potential that Dutch cattle can have on Pakistan’s growing dairy sector.

Characteristics of Dutch Dairy Cattle

Dutch cows are known for their pliable non-pendulous udders, which are firmly attached with strong suspensory ligaments near the vulva region. This has enabled them to produce high levels of milk yield, leading to a genetic gain (In breeding value) of 1.8 after the first selection generation. In light of this, Ummah Dairy Farm in Pakistan is taking advantage of this opportunity by importing Dutch Heifers from CowEx – Cloud.

The success of specialised dairy farms depends on various farmer characteristics and farm strategies such as nutrient management and performance. The Netherlands excels in these areas and is renowned for its world-famous Dutch Holstein Friesian cows. These cows are horned and weigh around 500 kgs on average, with some rustic traits being maintained by European Holstein-Friesian cows such as Dutch and Irish strains. The average farm size of a Dutch dairy farm will increase from 101 to 139 dairy cows in the basic scenario. Additionally, Wageningen University & Research stands out as a leader in research related to dairy farming, making sure that only 11% of dairy farms make recordings in the Dutch National Recording system.

Benefits of Dutch Dairy Cattle for Pakistani Farmers

Pakistan’s dairy sector is experiencing exciting growth and development, with the introduction of world-class Dutch dairy cattle offering unique opportunities for trade, cooperation, and development between the two countries. The Environmental Controlled Housing (ECH) Dairy Farm is a new revolution in Pakistan’s dairy sector that will create analysis and sustainable socio-economic benefits. Additionally, a concerted effort from the Pakistan-NDDC to improve quality and productivity throughout the Pakistani dairy chain is underway. With public and private support for Dutch dairy farming practices, Pakistan is poised to take advantage of higher-producing American breeds through their adoption of intensive production practices.

Dairy farming has been deeply embedded in Pakistani rural life for generations, with milk being an integral part of the socio-economic fibre. Trade relaxation between the two countries will provide access to high standard Dutch cattle markets; as the Netherlands are seen as the cradle of modern dairy cattle breeding. The potential benefits include lower culling rates, leading to fewer replacements and thus a higher income; more fertile and healthier cows; higher fats and proteins in milk production; as well as improved production and longevity.

Challenges Faced by Pakistani Farmers in Raising Dutch Dairy Cattle

Pakistan is looking to import high-quality dairy cattle, mostly Holstein Friesian, from the Netherlands. This provides the country with a unique opportunity to develop its dairy industry. A recent study of 108 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds showed that a structural approach could improve cow-claw health on these farms. This move is also beneficial for farmers in Pakistan, as most of them are smallholders who keep mainly buffaloes intensively and semi-intensively for meat and dairy production. The proposed pre-feasibility also encourages farmers to increase milk production through modern farm management practices. In addition, the culling of older dairy cows is encouraged to provide beef and high-quality feeder cattle. The research results are available in a Dutch publication which promotes innovation in agriculture by providing insight into successful farming practices.

Cost and Price of Dutch Dairy Cattle

The Dutch Holstein Friesian cow has become a profitable choice for small scale and commercial farmers in Pakistan. This is due to the accessibility of world-class Dutch genetics from CowEx – Cloud, which is a leading supplier of dairy cattle in the country. However, the economic, environmental and social sustainability of Dutch dairy farms have come at the cost of lower welfare for dairy cows in the long term.

Research on 110 dairy cattle farms in the district of Sargodha, Pakistan indicated that while milk prices had a positive relationship with farm size, there was an increase in rates of lameness and laminitis. This suggests that pursuing higher yields comes at the cost of lower welfare for dairy cows in the long term. On average, a Dutch dairy farm will increase from 101 to 139 cows according to current projections.

Wageningen University & Research is actively involved with 19,000 member dairy farms both locally and abroad. This has created a ‘tense’ market due to an increasing gap between farmgate milk prices and live cattle prices within the country. Additionally, productivity of animals in Pakistan compared to other countries is relatively low as demonstrated by SWOT analysis for the Dairy Industry and various other projects throughout the sector.

Milk Production from the Dutch Breed in Pakistan

Pakistan’s demand for Dutch dairy cattle is growing due to the high-quality production of milk, fats and proteins they can provide. The average lifetime production of a Dutch Holstein Frisian cow is 30,999 kg of milk per year with 2.443 kg of fat and protein. To meet this increasing demand, Cloud Agri Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd recently held a pre-launch event to introduce the breed to customers in Pakistan.

The Government of Pakistan has begun operations with 100 cows that are expected to produce 838,040 litres of milk in their first year. This will help contribute to the 65 million litres of cow and buffalo milk produced annually by Pakistani farmers. With the proper hygiene, nutrition and care, cows that produce more milk using less feed can help improve dairy farmers around the country’s bottom line.

To further support Pakistani dairy farmers, the Dutch agriculture sector has been providing breeding values based on their own system for livestock selection. This will help ensure that lower-yielding cows are not a part of Pakistan’s national production efforts. With this support from the Netherlands, Pakistani dairy farmers can look forward to higher yields and increased profitability for years to come.

Breeding Strategies for the Optimal Use of the Breed

Cattle production and breeding management in Asia is an important factor for dairy and food production. To maximize genetic potential, two main strategies can be employed: selective breeding within a breed and crossbreeding among different breeds. A great example of this is the Dutch-Friesian cattle breed, which has been bred to produce large amounts of milk due to its genetic potential. India is home to a vast array of livestock species and breeds, with some of the best cattle and buffaloes in the world. In Kenya, the most populous dairy cattle breed is found primarily in the country’s rural areas. Breeding schemes for dairy cattle are also being implemented in developing countries, with milk yield being a high priority trait. Crossbreeding can be used to create first crosses that are capable of producing more milk than pure-bred cows, making them an ideal choice for improving production levels. Proper classification of cattle breeds can aid our understanding of their genetic merits and enable us to choose the optimal strategy for increasing yields and improving overall productivity.

Availability and Accessibility to Veterinary Services for the Breed

The livestock sector in Pakistan is dominated by private farms and milk production, with water buffaloes, cattle, sheep, goats and poultry flocks maintained for research and production. The Farms Block has a well-equipped hatchery which provides poor farmers with better access to animal-health services. Veterinary Services play a key role in food safety and welfare, such as working animals and dairy cattle production. Cattle Breeders Associations are important for bovine health management, with the introduction of synthetic hormones for ES veterinary service and experts. The monthly cost of Extension and Veterinary Services is estimated at 130$. Competition from continuing public service veterinarians is a challenge in specialising into dairy farming.

Marketing Strategies Used by Farmers to Sell Products Obtained from the Breed

The industrialization of the dairy cattle sector has been an important driver of economic growth in the EU since the 1950s. This process has seen a shift from small-scale, family-owned farms to larger operations, with 31 main dairy processors now operating on the EU market. This shift has also changed the employment landscape within the sector, with cattle and crops farms now employing a much larger share of regional labor than before. As well as providing increased economic benefits for those regions, this increase in scale has also given farmers access to more modern technology and practices that have helped to improve efficiency and yields.

Impact on Local Economy Due to Farming with Dutch Dairy Cattle

The EU agricultural sector is largely shaped by the Dutch dairy industry, which has developed from a late-medieval local selective breeding of cattle to an export of dairy products and fattened cattle. Wild aurochs also have had an influence on the sector. The costs of mastitis in dairy cattle are one of the greatest economic burdens, as quantified by Tiwari et al., and these costs can be reduced at farm level through investments in large dairy farms. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant downturn in Pakistan’s economy, although investments in imported dairy cows may help to revive it. Beef production remains the main focus of the livestock industry but interest in dairy farming is growing. According to government statistics, there are 1.7 million farms across Europe with 23.5 million dairy cows producing an average milk yield per cow. The Netherlands is home to 1.58 million cows and calves and produces 14 billion kg of milk each year. Lameness is one of the most irritating problems facing dairy farmers as it leads to poor animal welfare and economic losses. Dairy farming has come under fire from animal welfare activists who point out that intensive animal husbandry causes health issues for cows.

Recommended Feeding and Care Practices For Optimal Health and Productivity of The Breed

Dairy cows require special care during the post-calving period, as this is when many welfare issues arise. To ensure optimal animal health and productivity, best farming practices should be implemented, such as providing alternative feed resources and using biorational pesticides to control vector-borne diseases. A survey was conducted in the Netherlands to assess the effectiveness of fresh cow management on economic performance. Results showed that innovative horizontal fans improved beef cattle health and production, while a commercial diet was developed for animal products and human health. These strategies are essential for maintaining a healthy dairy system and improving productivity across the continent. Furthermore, aflatoxin-contaminated feed can negatively affect the health of dairy cattle.


Pakistan is known for having a large number of dairy animals, and dairy farming plays an important role in the nation’s economy. The Dutch Holstein Friesian cow breed is an ideal breed for Pakistani farmers, offering economic, environmental and social sustainability. This breed has been found to be highly effective in terms of artificial insemination and nutrient management planning. It also leads to high quality food production such as meat and milk.

The Nili-Ravi buffaloes native to Pakistan are particularly prone to reproductive failure, leading to economic losses. However, by implementing a calving interval specific to the dairy industry, these losses can be minimized. Additionally, a focus on small-scale dairy farming can help uplift the socioeconomic conditions of resource-poor communities in the Province of Punjab. Finally, a successful dairy marketing system is essential for achieving optimal results from this sector of the economy.