What is Difference Between Desi cow and Jersey Cow?

Are you curious about the differences between Desi cows and Jersey cows? Are you looking for more information about the breeds when it comes to dairy production and meat production? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’ll be exploring the key differences between these two cattle breeds, including their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages.


Cows are found in a variety of breeds and types, and it is important to understand the differences between them. Desi cows and Jersey cows are two of the most popular types of cattle. The main difference between Desi and Jersey cows is their physical appearance, milk production, adaptability, and micro-nutrient content in dung.

Desi (Brahma) type cattle have droopy ears and a hump. They also have curved horns with a thick base. On the other hand, Jerseys have no hump and look rather large with their large heads and relatively short horns.

When compared to the Jersey breed, Desi cows often produce less milk than Jersey cows; however doctors encourage pregnant women, children, and elderly people to drink this type of milk due to its higher micro-nutrient content. The dung of the Indian cows contains more microbes and micro nutrients approximately 85-90% whereas the Jersey cow contains 50-60%.

Adaptability wise, Jerseys are more able to adapt quickly to different climates than Desi Cows but Indian breeds are better suited for our tropical climate. In 1950 India had more than 70 indigenous cow breeds after gaining independence; unfortunately over the last 70 years India has lost more than 50% of these breeds due to extensive crossbreeding with American breeds such as Jerseys or Holstein Friesians (HF).

Overall both Desi Cows as well as Jerseys offer unique qualities that make them valuable assets for any agricultural setting or dairy farm!

Physical Differences

The physical differences between Desi (Brahma) and Jersey cows are quite noticeable. Desi cows have droopy ears and a hump while Jerseys have no hump and look more like traditional cattle. Desi cows also have curved horns with a thick base compared to the large heads and short horns of hybrid Jersey cows. In terms of size, Holsteins are the biggest dairy breed, weighing up to 1,500 pounds, while Jerseys are much smaller. When looking at their milk production, Holsteins produce 4061 Kg in the first seventy days of lactation whereas Jerseys only produce 2706 Kg. Furthermore, Desi cows contain the A2 allele gene which makes their milk more nutrient-dense than that of Jersey cows.

Milk Production

Milk production is the process of producing milk from cows, goats, sheep and other dairy animals. Milk is a nutritious and healthy food that provides essential nutrients to humans. It is one of the most important agricultural commodities and plays an important role in global food security. The primary purpose of milk production is to provide fresh, nutritious milk for human consumption.

To produce high-quality milk, cows must be well-fed and healthy with access to clean water and ample pasture or hay for feed. Dairy farmers must also provide regular veterinary care for their animals as well as maintain high standards of animal welfare. Modern dairy farms use specialized equipment such as milking machines and automated feeding systems to ensure efficiency, productivity and food safety standards are met.

Milk production also requires careful management of herd health by identifying any illnesses or issues early on that could affect the quality of the milk produced. Farmers must also meet various regulations including those set out by national governments as well as international organizations in order to ensure their products are safe for public consumption.

Milk has a variety of uses besides drinking it plain or adding it to coffee or tea; it can be used in cooking, baking, ice cream making, cheese making, yogurt production and other food products such as butter or ghee.

Temperament and Behavior

Temperament and behavior are important characteristics of cows. Generally, Jersey cows are known to have a more pleasant temperament than other breeds, and are very docile. This makes them ideal for milking as they can handle stress better. On the other hand, desi cows tend to be more nervous and skittish than Holstein cows or other breeds. Desi cow dung also contains more microbes and micro nutrients (approximately 85-90%) compared to the 50-60% found in Jersey cow dung. In Punjab, the American varieties promoted are HF and Jersey while Indian breeds like Sahiwal, Rathi and Gir are also popular. Jerseys tend to be more independent minded compared to other dairy breeds while their bulls have a strong masculine look despite their small size. Lastly, research has revealed that Jerseys are less susceptible to mastitis than most other dairy breeds due to their high immunity levels against disease causing bacteria.

Lifespan and Health Issues

The lifespan and health of different cow breeds vary significantly. Indian cows, such as the Gir cow, typically live longer than their crossbred counterparts like the Jersey cow. The dung of Indian cows contains more microbes and micro nutrients, giving them an edge in terms of longevity and health. In general, Jersey cows have shorter lifespans due to fertility issues, metabolic diseases, and other factors. They are also more prone to gas and diarrhea due to their high consumption of fodder. Primiparous Jersey cows also tend to have earlier first calving than Holstein cows. In addition, research has indicated that Jersey cows are less susceptible to mastitis and lameness compared with Holsteins. Therefore, while there are definite differences between the lifespans and health issues of various cow breeds, Jersey cows can still be quite productive in dairy farms when managed correctly.

Feeding Habits and Nutrition Requirements

Feeding habits and nutritional requirements are an important factor when it comes to cows, particularly dairy cows. Jersey cows are a breed that is known for producing good milk production, with tall and thin builds compared to other breeds. Their milk has higher fat content than that of Holstein or HF Milk, being slightly yellowish in colour. The feeding behaviour of primiparous and multiparous Jersey cows can be compared to that of Holsteins.

When it comes to nutrition requirements, scientific studies show the Jersey cow produces milk more efficiently than other breeds due to their higher fat (and therefore energy) content as well as a higher milk protein content and manufacturing quality. They are also able to meet the Chinese Feeding Standard of Dairy Cow better due to their basic diets providing the right amounts of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins necessary for proper growth and development.

Another difference between whey and colostrum is that whey does not clot within the abomasum while colostrum has 3-5 times more protein than regular milk and contains beneficial minerals like copper, iron, zinc and magnesium which help with digestion. Having said this, a good diet is essential for healthy cows so make sure your dairy cow gets the right amount of feed for its size!

Cost of Maintenance and Production

The cost of maintenance for Jersey cows and other crossbreds is lower than that of Desi (Brahma) type cattle. This is because hybrid cows consume less fodder while yielding almost double the amount of milk. As a result, these cows are more popular among dairy farmers due to their low maintenance cost. Additionally, Jerseys mature more quickly and dairy heifer calves can be obtained at an early age. In 1985, fifty Jersey cows were imported to Pakistan from the United States of America (USA).

This paper compares milk production and reproduction performance between Desi (Brahma) type cattle and Jersey cows. Despite being disadvantaged in profitability, Jersey cows were slightly more feed efficient at 1.75 lb. of energy-corrected milk per lb. of feed consumed compared to Desi types. Therefore, it is clear that while the cost of maintenance is lower for Jerseys, they also provide higher yields in terms of milk production and reproduction performance compared to Desi types.

Adaptability to Climate Change

Climate change is a reality that has been impacting us and the environment for decades. With the rise in temperatures, extreme weather events, and changes in precipitation patterns, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how different species adapt to these changes. While some species can survive in harsh conditions, others require particular environmental conditions to thrive. This is especially true for cows and other livestock animals, which depend on their environment for food and shelter.

Adaptability to climate change is an important trait for cows and other livestock animals. As temperatures fluctuate, specific breeds of cows may be better equipped to tolerate the changing conditions than others. For example, studies have shown that jersey cattle are more tolerant of high-altitude climates than other breeds like Friesian cows. This adaptation allows them to produce milk despite the harsh environments they may find themselves in. Additionally, sheep and goats have been found to be more resilient during periods of severe heat stress or water/food scarcity than other species due to their phenotypic plasticity—the ability for an individual plant or animal to adjust its physical characteristics or behavior according to its surroundings.

Ultimately, understanding how different breeds adapt differently to climate change can help farmers choose the best breed for their location and situation as this can play an important role in their success when farming livestock animals such as cows.

Usefulness in Agricultural Practices

Agricultural practices play a major role in the production of food for people all around the world. In order to successfully produce food, farmers must use the most effective and efficient methods available. Many agricultural practices are used to improve crop yields and increase efficiency. These practices include crop rotation, irrigation, fertilization, pest control, and soil conservation.

Crop rotation is an important practice that has been used for centuries to ensure that crops receive adequate nutrients from the soil. By rotating different crops in a field every year, farmers are able to replenish the soil with essential nutrients while controlling pest populations and preventing disease outbreaks.

Irrigation is another practice that is often used in agriculture. Irrigation systems help farmers ensure that their crops have access to water even during periods of drought or low rainfall levels. This helps keep crops healthy and maximize yield potentials.

Fertilizers are also commonly used by farmers as a way of providing additional nutrients for their crops. Fertilizers can come in many forms including organic matter such as manure or compost or synthetic chemical fertilizers which can be applied directly to the soil or sprayed onto plants through an irrigation system.

Pest control is also an important agricultural practice as it helps protect crops from pests like insects, rodents, fungi, and diseases which can damage or destroy entire fields of crops if left unchecked. Farmers can use a variety of methods such as traps, insecticides, herbicides, and biological controls to limit damage caused by pests and diseases on their farms.

Soil conservation techniques are also very important as they help preserve existing soil resources while improving fertility levels in existing soils over time with proper management techniques such as tillage practices

Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction

Genetics, breeding and reproduction play an important role in the productivity of livestock. The productive performance of indigenous cattle is often lower than that of exotic breeds due to their unexploited genotype. In 1985, fifty Jersey cows were imported to Pakistan from the United States of America (USA). Today, Jerseys are the second largest breed of dairy cattle in the world, with fewer than 6,000 in total and around 4,000 in Jersey itself. When compared to Holstein and Guernsey breeds, all Jerseys clustered together as a breed. Jerseys demonstrate increased inbreeding when compared to other breeds. Breeding efficiency in Jersey cows is significantly higher than that of Holstein Friesian cows. Despite their good genetic potential, productive and reproductive performance of indigenous breeds remains very low due to a shortage of feed and lack of proper husbandry practices. To improve these performances, crossbreeding between exotic and local cattle has been used successfully for decades to increase milk production as well as reproductive performance.

Susceptibility to Disease

Susceptibility to disease is a major concern for farmers and those in the dairy industry. Many factors can contribute to a cow’s susceptibility, including breed, environment, and nutrition. For example, cows of the Holstein breed tend to be more prone to disease than Jersey cows due to their lighter hoof color that makes them more susceptible to lameness. Additionally, hot climates are less suitable for certain breeds of cows and may increase their risk of infection. Poor nutrition can also leave cows vulnerable to disease as it weakens their immune system. To reduce the risk of diseases in cattle herds, farmers should consider the breed and environmental conditions when selecting cows for their herd as well as provide proper nutrition for optimal health.

Popularity with Farmers

The popularity of dairy cows with farmers has been steadily increasing in recent years. Many farmers are now opting for breeds like Jersey cows, which produce more milk than local varieties. Jerseys have also become popular because of their high fat content in the milk they produce and their distinctive brown body with red markings. Furthermore, the removal of milk quotas has allowed many dairy farmers to take advantage of the Jersey breed’s high milk production capabilities. On the other hand, Holstein cows remain a favorite among many farms and ranches, as they are larger and can produce more milk than Jerseys. Indian farming communities are also taking advantage of the benefits offered by indigenous cows’ higher suitability for children’s physical and mental growth.

Suitability for Dairy Farming

Dairy farming is a popular way to make a living, and the right cow breed is essential for success. Desi Cows are smaller and less productive than more common breeds such as Holstein, making them most suitable for small-scale operations. On the other hand, Jersey cows produce more milk with higher fat and protein content, making them ideal for larger operations. In India, Desi Cows are preferred due to their ability to better withstand the hot tropical climate and their suitability for children’s physical and mental growth. However, Jersey cows can be more efficient in countries where feed may be scarce or expensive. Ultimately, it all comes down to the size of your operation and what type of milk production you are looking for when determining which breed of cow is best suited for your dairy farming needs.

Benefits of Desi Cow over Jersey Cow

Desi cows have long been a part of the Indian culture and their milk has been used for centuries in traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Desi cows are revered for their many benefits, including providing high quality organic milk, an abundance of natural fertilizer, and helping to revive degraded land. In comparison to Jersey cows, Desi cows produce less milk, but the health benefits of their A2 milk are much greater. Desi cow’s milk is easier to digest than that of a Jersey cow because it contains more beneficial enzymes and nutrients. Additionally, Desi cow manure is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus which is great for soil fertility and helps to improve crop yields. Finally, due to the hardy nature of the breed, it requires minimal medical care compared to other breeds such as Jersey cows. This makes them ideal for small-scale farmers who may not be able to afford expensive health care for larger breeds. All in all, the benefits of keeping Desi cows far outweigh those of keeping Jersey cows!


The main difference between Desi cows and Jersey cows is in their appearance, milk composition, and quality of dung. Desi cows have curved horns with a thick base, while hybrid cows such as Jerseys have large heads and relatively short horns. The milk from Desi cows contains the A2 protein, which is more nutrient-dense than the A1 protein found in the milk of foreign breeds like Jersey. Additionally, Indian cow dung contains more microbes and micro nutrients than that of Jersey cows. Red Sindhis were crossed with Jerseys at three stations to develop dairy cattle adaptable to southern climates, resulting in higher quality milk production for processing dairy products.

Black and White Cow Breeds

Are you looking to add some new cows to your farm? If so, then this blog post is for you! We’re here to help you find the perfect breed for your needs. We’ve rounded up some of the best black and white cow breeds out there, from traditional Holsteins to newer crosses. Read on to learn more about these amazing animals!


The Holstein is a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Netherlands and Northern Germany. Holsteins are known for their distinctive black and white markings and are the most popular dairy cows in the United States, accounting for around 90% of all dairy cows. Holsteins have large bodies, usually weighing between 1,500-1,800 pounds. They are also long-lived animals with productive lifespans of 6 years or more.

Holstein cows were originally bred to be dual-purpose animals, meaning they were used both for milk production and beef production. Today they are primarily used as dairy cows due to their ability to produce large amounts of milk. On average, a single Holstein cow can produce up to 7 gallons of milk each day! This makes them an ideal choice for commercial dairies looking to maximize their output.

In addition to their use as dairy cows, Holsteins also make great show animals. Their unique black and white patterns make them stand out from other breeds in shows and competitions. The breed has even been recognized by the American Dairy Association with its own official certification program – the ‘Holstein USA Official Certification Program’.

Whether you’re looking for a reliable source of high quality milk or an eye catching show animal – the Holstein is a great option!


The Jersey is a small dairy cow originating from the British Channel Islands. As one of the three Channel Island breeds, it is renowned for its high production of milk and butterfat. The Jersey breed has been imported to other parts of the world, and its popularity continues to grow due to its adaptability to various farm systems and efficient, sustainable performance.

The Jersey has a black and white coat which makes it easily recognizable among other breeds. It is one of the few black and white dairy cow breeds due to its rarity in comparison with brown or red cows. The color combination makes this breed even more desirable as a source for milk production.

As far as temperament goes, Jerseys are known for their docile nature which makes them easy to manage. Despite their small stature, they are incredibly productive cows that can produce up to 18 liters of milk per day! It also helps that they have relatively short gestation periods compared to other dairy cows, allowing them a quicker turnaround between births.

Overall, Jerseys are an excellent choice for any farmer looking for high-quality milk production while still being able to handle other farm duties such as plowing or herding cattle on pastures. Their docile nature coupled with their efficient performance make them an ideal addition to any farming operation!


The Guernsey is a beautiful breed of dairy cattle hailing from the island of Guernsey in the Channel Islands. They come in a variety of colors, ranging from yellow to reddish-brown with white patches. They have an even temperament and are not known for being nervous or irritable. In addition, their light coat color makes them particularly well-suited to tolerate heat.

The Guernsey has a rich history on the islands, where it was developed over centuries as part of its unique environment. Thanks to its golden milk, full of beta carotene, the breed is known as “The Royal Breed” and is highly sought after for its delicate aesthetic qualities and pleasant disposition.

In terms of size, Guernseys are larger than Jerseys and produce milk that is quite pronounced in flavor and aroma. Nationally they can be found all over with their highest populations located in Wisconsin and Michigan.


The Ayrshire is a Scottish breed of dairy cattle that originated in the county of Ayr and is named after it. The breed is known for its red and white color pattern, with the red ranging from a light orange to a dark mahogany. Its horns are distinctive, lyre-shaped and the body color can vary from almost pure white to nearly all cherry red or brown with any combination of colors, including black or brindle.

Ayrshires are hardy animals that are well adapted to living on hilly terrain and can easily adjust to different climates. They have good feet and legs which make them great for long-distance travel. They also tend to be docile animals which makes them easy to handle in the dairy barns.

In terms of milk production, Ayrshires are known for their high butterfat content which makes their milk especially rich and creamy. They produce an average of 5500–7000 kilograms (12000–15500 pounds) of milk per lactation period with 4% butterfat content in their milk.

Ayrshires have become popular in many countries due to their reliability as milk producers, good temperament, ease of management and attractive appearance.

Milking Shorthorn

The Milking Shorthorn is a breed of dairy cattle originating from the northeast part of England. They are easily recognizable due to their distinctive color pattern of black and white or red. Milking Shorthorns are known for being efficient grazers that are easy to manage, which may be why they became world-renowned as an excellent dairy breed. The Whitebred Shorthorn, which was developed to cross with black Galloway cattle, is a type of Shorthorn bred to be consistently white. They are also referred to as the “Aristocrat” of the dairy breeds due their size and vigor, as well as their ability to adapt easily to their environment. All in all, it’s no wonder they have become such a popular choice for dairy farmers around the world!

Brown Swiss

The Brown Swiss cattle breed is one of the oldest dairy breeds in the world, originating in the Swiss Alps. This breed is a light brown color with a creamy white muzzle and dark nose, and distinctive dark-blue eye pigmentation. Brown Swiss cows are known for their docility and milking ability, making them a popular choice among dairy farmers. They are also known to be hardy and long-lived, able to survive in harsher climates than other breeds. The breed has also been taken to high mountain pastures during summer months, where they can graze freely while providing milk for the local population. The Brown Swiss is an excellent choice for both dairy production and as a dual purpose animal for meat production.

Red and White Holstein

Red and White Holsteins are a beautiful breed of cattle with a distinctive red and white spotted markings. They are large in frame, weighing up to 1,400 pounds in maturity. They have black and white or red and white color patterns which make them easily recognizable. Their origin is from the region of Friesland and Northern Germany, where they were first bred as dairy cows. Red and White Holsteins are known for their high milk production, making them one of the most popular dairy cow breeds in the world today. They also have strong genetics from other cattle varieties with reddish coats like Milking Shorthorns, making them hardy animals that can thrive in numerous climates. This makes them a great choice for farms looking to diversify their herd!

Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cow

Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cow is a breed of dual-purpose cattle believed to have originated in Central Europe during the 19th century. It is a cross between different breeds of domestic cattle, such as the Simmental and Fleckvieh, and produces an especially large volume of milk. This breed has a reddish or black coat with a white star on its forehead, making it easily recognizable. Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cows are well-suited for both milk and meat production, making them an ideal choice for farmers looking to diversify their herd. They are also highly sought after due to their hardy nature and ability to thrive in high altitudes. With its gentle temperament and efficient production capabilities, Fleckvieh Swiss Mountain Cows are sure to provide great value for any farm or ranch.

White Park Cattle

White Park Cattle is a rare breed of ancient horned cattle that primarily reside in Great Britain. They are mostly white with black or red points, such as the ears, nose and eyes. The American White Park is a large breed with an average weight of 1000 pounds for cows and bulls between. This breed has distinctive wide-spreading horns which are usually black-tipped.

White Park cattle have been bred in Britain for more than two thousand years and is an important part of British agricultural history. They produce delicious beef and also used for milk production. Their upper portion of the tongue should be black while underneath is white.

If you’re looking for a unique black and white cow breed, consider the Holstein-Friesian! This prolific breed hails from Friesland and northern Holland, known for its “white park” color pattern with its white coat accompanied by black or red eye rings, ears, nose, feet, and more. It’s one of the most popular dairy breeds used around the world but can also be used to produce beef as well.

Limousin Cow

The Limousin Cow is an ancient breed of cattle that developed in central France in the province of Limousin. It was initially bred for draught and beef production under pastoral conditions, but has since become popular for crossbreeding. These cows are large, light-colored animals, typically with white or cream coloring and light hair with dark pigmented skin. They can also be black, yellow, white or dun in color and have horns. Limousins with black genetics may show a variation in color as well. Calves can be light fawn or brown in color graduating to a darker shade as they age. Popularly known as “Oreo cattle” due to their black coloration with a white stripe through their middles, this breed is often featured prominently in children’s books and TV ads due to its attractive markings.


Angus is a breed of black, polled beef cattle originating in northeastern Scotland. Also known internationally as Aberdeen Angus, they were developed in the early 19th century from both polled and predominantly black horned breeds. Angus cattle are popular for their meat production due to their high-quality marbling, making them ideal for beef products such as steak. They are also easy to manage and have good fertility rates. The breed can come in either black or red varieties, but the majority of Angus cattle are black. With their gentle temperament and hardy nature, Angus is often a preferred breed for ranchers around the world.


The Charolais is a French breed of taurine beef cattle that originated in the Charolais area surrounding Charolais, France. It is known for its large size and sturdy frame, making it an ideal choice for meat production and draft work. Charolais are typically white in color, although some strains may be black or red. This breed is also popularly used as a crossbreeding partner to give other cattle breeds better growth rate and higher quality beef. The White Galloway strain has a distinct black point pattern with white base coat, giving it a unique appearance. The Dhanni breed from the Punjab region of Pakistan has black and white color combinations with distinct patches of splashy colors on their body. Overall, the Charolais is an incredibly versatile breed that can be used for multiple purposes due to its hardiness, strength and handsome features.


The Hereford is an iconic British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire in the West Midlands of England. It is known for its dark red to reddish-yellow coat and white face, crest, dewlap and underline. It is also popular for its hardiness and ability to do well in a variety of climates and situations. The Hereford is a reliable producer of high quality beef and has been used extensively as a crossbreed with other breeds to improve their performance. Herefords are also well known for their gentle nature, making them excellent family cows. They are very easy to work with and make great companions for farmers, ranchers, hobbyists, and anyone who loves having cattle around!

Devon Cattle

Devon Cattle are an ancient British breed of large beef cattle which originated in the counties of Devon and Cornwall in south-west England. They have been around for centuries, and are known for their distinct color splashing on the body, which can range from deep red to light chestnut, with white patches on the tail switch, udder or scrotum. Devon Cattle produce high quality beef that is leaner than other breeds due to their low fat content. They also have a strong immune system and are highly resilient to disease. Devon Cattle thrive in both warm and cold climates due to their adaptability, making them a great choice for homesteaders looking for a reliable dairy or beef source.

Scottish Highland Cattle

The Scottish Highland Cattle are a traditional Scottish breed of beef cattle, known for their rustic appearance and long horns. They have long shaggy coats in red, black or white and can be identified by the belt-like pattern of white around their middle. This breed is hardy and intelligent, having been bred to withstand the conditions in the highlands of Scotland. The original two classes were the West Highlands or Kyloe, which were raised on western islands of Scotland, and the Highlander class which was found inland. Today they are popularly used for their beef as well as for show purposes. They are also known to make good companion animals due to their gentle nature and inquisitive personalities.

Cholistani Cow

Are you looking for an ideal cattle breed? Want to start a dairy farm, or just curious about the Cholistani cow? This blog post will provide you with an overview of this unique and popular breed, including its characteristics, history, and other important information. So grab a cup of coffee and let’s get started!

Introduction to Cholistani Cattle

Cholistani cattle are a zebu breed found in the Cholistan desert in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. These cattle are speckled red, brown or white in colour and are usually medium-sized with small horns and long ears. The hump of males is well developed while the dewlap is large in both males and females. Cholistani cattle are primarily used for dairy production, however they can also be used for meat production, traction and other agricultural purposes. They have good resistance to harsh climatic conditions as well as diseases such as foot and mouth disease due to their strong immune system.

These animals are hardy and can survive on low quality roughages which makes them suitable for dry land farming systems. They have high milk yield potential with average yields ranging from 3-5 kg per day with peak yields of up to 7 kg per day. The average lactation length of these cows ranges from 180-220 days with an interval of 4 weeks between successive calvings. The fat percentage of their milk ranges from 3-4% while their protein content is around 2%.

Cholistani cattle have great potential for future improvement through selective breeding programs as they have good adaptability and fertility traits along with higher heat tolerance than other popular breeds such as Holstein Friesians or Jersey Cattle. Thus, this breed could be a great addition to any farm looking to increase its productivity without compromising on animal welfare or quality standards.

Anatomy and Physiology

The anatomy and physiology of cattle’s reproductive system is a key aspect to consider when it comes to proper cattle management. The reproductive system consists of two ovaries, two oviducts, two uterine horns, and the vas deferens which are responsible for transporting sperm from the testes to the female reproductive tract. Research studies have shown that epididectomized bulls can still service cows during estrous cycles without depositing sperm in the female reproductive tract. In addition, biometric traits such as body measurements and production traits are important factors that need to be taken into account when studying Cholistani cows. This Zebu breed of cattle is native to Cholistan Desert area in Punjab India and Pakistan and is widely used in dairy production. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of cow’s reproductive systems can therefore aid in effective breeding strategies, improved livestock management practices, and increased milk production.

Characteristics of Cholistani Cows

The Cholistani cow is a large-sized, flabby animal with small horns and ears. This multi-purpose breed is used for both meat and milk production as well as for draught work. It is a Zebu or Bos indicus breed that is thermo-tolerant and tick-resistant, making it an excellent choice for hot climates. The Cholistani cow originates from the sandy desert area of Cholistan, particularly in Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan Districts.

The least squares means for milk yield, lactation length and dry period were 1029.68 plus minus 44.35 kg, 209.47 plus minus 11.14 days and 237.87 plus minus 20.98 days respectively according to preliminary data on Cholistani Cattle Physical Characteristics. Factor analysis with promax rotation revealed 4 factors which help to identify the characteristics of the Cholistani cow breed more accurately.

The total livestock population estimated in 2006 was 1209528, out of which 47% were cattle; making the Cholistani cow an important part of Pakistan’s agricultural economy even today!

Cholistani Cow Milk Yield

Cholistani Cows are a Zebu breed of cattle originating from the Cholistan Desert area of Punjab in Pakistan and India. They are primarily used in dairy production and have an average body weight of 450 to 500 kg in males and 350 to 400 kg in females. The Govt. Jugaitpir Farm, Bahawalpur, maintains Elite specimens with a milk yield of 15-18 L per day. Studies conducted by the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences have found that the least squares means for milk yield, lactation length, dry period and fat percentage in milk are 1029.68 ± 44.35 kg, 209.47 ± 11.14 days, 237.87 ± 20.98 days and 4% respectively. Thus Cholistani cows provide an excellent source of dairy production due to their high quality milk yield with good fat content for human consumption as well as for other industrial uses such as cheese making or butter production.

Cholistani Cow Price in Pakistan

Cholistani cows are an indigenous, heat-tolerant breed of cattle from India. They are commonly reared by nomads in Pakistan and have become popular for their hardy nature and adaptability to the local climate. The price of Cholistani cows in Pakistan varies depending on factors such as age, quality, color, and size. Generally speaking, prices range from PKR 85,000 for a Black Cholistani Bachra to around PKR 175,000 for a Cholistani Frisian Cross cow. These animals are perfect for anyone looking to purchase a hardy cow that can survive the hot Pakistani summers!

Cholistani Cow Milk Production

Cholistani cows are a Zebu breed of cattle originating from the Cholistan Desert in Pakistan and India. They are primarily used for dairy production and are known for their high milk yields. On average, a Cholistani cow can produce between 15-18 liters of milk per day and up to 2200 kg of milk over the course of its lactation period. The average body weight for these cows is between 450-500 kg for males and 350-400 kg for females. Male calves from this breed make great sources of quality beef.

Cholistani Cow Weight

Cholistani cows are a Zebu breed of cattle found in the Cholistan desert in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. They are usually speckled red, brown or white and are known for their large size among Pakistani cattle breeds. A study conducted to evaluate the performance of calves of Cholistani breed of cattle found that animals fed on fattening rations had a daily weight gain of 2.9 kg in 91 days. Elite specimens of Cholistani cows with the milk yield of 15-18 liters per day were maintained at the Govt. Livestock Farm, Jugaitpeer, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cholistani cows are widely used for dairy production and provide an important source of income for local farmers.

Uses for the Breed

Cholistani cattle are a Zebu breed of Punjab in Pakistan and India that are primarily used for dairy production. They are known for their thermo-tolerance and tick-resistance, which make them ideal for harsh climates. Cholistani cows have small horns, and data on 18 biometric traits is used in breeding programs to enhance their productivity.

Cholistani cattle are considered to be the ancestors of the Sahiwal, a type of Zebu cattle from India and Pakistan. They originate from the Cholistan Desert area, where they were first domesticated by ancient tribes who used them for dairy production and other livestock purposes. The total estimated livestock population in 2006 was 12,09528 cows, with 47% of those belonging to the Cholistani breed.

Today, these cows are still used as dairy animals and provide an important source of nutrition in rural areas across South Asia. Their milk is high quality and highly nutritious, making it popular among consumers who appreciate its taste and health benefits. In addition to dairy production, Cholistani cattle can also be used as draft animals or raised as beef cattle due to their hardy nature.

Cholistani Cow Sale in Pakistan

Are you looking for a Cholistani Cow to purchase in Pakistan? OLX Pakistan offers online local classified ads so you can find the perfect cow for your needs. From Black cholistani Bachra to Poure Cholistani cows, there is something to fit everyone’s budget. Prices range from PKR₨85,000.00 and up. You can also find Low cost cholistani cows at discounted Eid prices for Qurbani 2022 or buy directly from Bakra Mandi free Cholistani Cow janwar experimental station Jugaitpeer, Punjab province, Pakistan. The average of these traits indicated that Cholistani cows breed are of medium size with brown and white 0004 markings. So if you’re looking for a Cholistani Cow in Pakistan, look no further than OLX Pakistan!

Dairy Production

Dairy production is a big industry in many parts of the world, and Cholistani cows are an important part of it. Cholistani cows are a Zebu breed originating from the Cholistan Desert area and they are large-sized flabby animals with milk yields of 15-18 liters per day. These cows are mainly kept for milk production, and they can produce up to 2200 kg of milk as well as other dairy products. Data on 18 biometric traits such as lactation length, dry period, and fat content have been collected on 325 lactating Cholistani cows to determine their production capabilities. Elite specimens of this breed can produce up to 15 liters of milk per day, making them an ideal choice for dairy farmers looking for high-yielding cows. They also have short dry periods and long lactation lengths which help ensure consistent milk production over time. With their reliable performance, Cholistani cows make an excellent choice for any dairy operation looking for quality products and high yields.

Availability, Cost, Care, and Maintenance

Cholistani cows are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant Bos indicus breed of cattle that can be found in the Cholistan region of Pakistan. They are known for their hardiness and productivity and have been used in crossbreeding programs with other breeds such as Sahiwal.

Availability: Cholistani cows are available from various sources including local farmers markets, livestock farms, and classifieds websites such as OLX Pakistan.

Cost: The price of a Cholistani cow depends on its milk production, age, and health condition. Prices can range from Rs 10,000 to Rs 20,000 or more depending on these factors.

Care: Cholistani cows require proper care to maintain their health and productivity. This includes regular vaccinations, deworming treatments, parasite control measures like fly control and tick treatments, good nutrition with balanced feed rations based on the animal’s stage of life cycle (such as pregnancy or lactation), hoof trimming to prevent foot diseases or lameness problems due to uneven wear patterns on the feet caused by walking in sand or mud. Regular milking should also be done at least twice per day for optimal milk production.

Maintenance: Proper maintenance is essential for keeping your Cholistani cow healthy and productive for many years. This includes providing adequate housing facilities such as shade from the sun during summer months, access to clean water and nutritious feed all year round, regular hoof trimming to prevent foot diseases caused by uneven wear patterns due to walking in sand/mud etc., regular monitoring of body condition score (BCS) over time so that any changes can be noted immediately and appropriate action taken if necessary etc.

Advantages of Keeping a Cholistani Cow

Keeping a Cholistani Cow can be beneficial in many ways. This breed of cattle is known to be a thermo-tolerant and tick-resistant breed, which means they can withstand extreme temperatures and are not as susceptible to ticks. They are also multi-purpose: they can be used for both meat and milk production, as well as for draft work.

Cholistani cows have been bred over time to produce more with less feed, making them a more economical option than other breeds. Additionally, they have been found to maintain haematochemical parameters more or less at the same level when underfed post calving, meaning that their productivity will not suffer too much in such cases.

These cows have also been noted for having relatively good fertility rates and calving intervals; this is important for profitable dairy farming operations. Furthermore, due to their hardy nature and ability to thrive even in tough conditions, these cows require less upkeep than some other breeds of cattle.

In summary, keeping a Cholistani cow is a great choice if you’re looking for an economical yet reliable option that can produce high yields with minimal maintenance costs.


Cholistani cattle are a hardy breed of cattle that have been used for centuries in the Cholistan desert. They are thought to be the ancestors of the Sahiwal breed and have developed strong thermo-tolerance and tick-resistance. A recent study looked at 18 biometric traits from 325 lactating Cholistani cows aged 4-6 years, with results indicating that they could be used for fattening and provide socio-economic benefits to livestock farmers in Cholistan. The study also revealed that proper breeding programs and provision of appropriate feed could further improve the performance of these cattle. In conclusion, Cholistani cattle are an important part of Pakistan’s agricultural history, offering both economic and animal welfare benefits to those who raise them.

Cholistani Cow Characteristics

Are you looking for a cow that is both hardy and attractive? Do you want a breed that can adapt to different climates? If so, then the Cholistani Cow may be just what you need! This blog post will discuss the characteristics of the Cholistani Cow and why it may be an ideal choice for your needs.

Introduction to the Cholistani Cow

The Cholistani cow is an indigenous cattle breed native to the Cholistan desert in Pakistan. This hardy breed is large and flabby, with a distinctive hump on their backs. They are usually either white with brown or black spots, or vice versa. The Cholistani cow is a multi-purpose animal that can be used for both milk and meat production, as well as for draft power.

This hardworking breed has been an important source of livelihood for rural communities in the Cholistan region for centuries. In 2006, there were estimated to be 1209528 livestock animals in the area, with 47 percent of these being cattle – largely attributed to the popularity of the Cholistani breed. It is thought to be an ancestor of the Sahiwal breed and has been identified by factor analysis as being medium-sized and having good protein efficiencies when it comes to fattening calves.

Overall, the Cholistani cow is a resilient and reliable animal that has proven its worth over many generations in this arid region of Pakistan. Not only does it provide milk and meat products but also draft power that can be used for transport and cultivation purposes – making it an invaluable asset to any farming operation or rural village.

Physical Characteristics

Cholistani cattle are large-sized, flabby animals with small horns and ears. They are a multi-purpose breed, used for both meat and milk production as well as draught work. Of all livestock, Cholistani cattle have one of the highest shares in terms of milk and meat production. They are Zebu or Bos indicus and have thermo-tolerance as well as tick resistance. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows show that their average milk yield is 1029.68 ± 44.35 kg per lactation period, with a lactation length of 209.47 ± 11.14 days and a dry period of 237.87 ± 20.98 days. Ultimately, Cholistani cattle offer great potential for both milk production and draught work, making them an excellent choice for farmers in the area!

Adaptability and Heat Tolerance

Cholistani cattle are known for their adaptability and heat tolerance, making them a popular choice for farmers in hot climates. These cows are ancestors of the Sahiwal, which is a thermo-tolerant and tick-resistant breed. Studies have shown that Cholistani service bulls maintain most of their haematochemical parameters even in extreme heat environments. Additionally, molecular evolutionary genetic analyses suggest that the divergent origin of dwarf cattle was adaptive in response to heat stress.

Performance traits of Sahiwal cattle have been studied extensively in hot climates and it has been found that they are more tolerant to heat than other breeds such as Achai. Crossbred cows also respond better to thermal stress due to extreme changes in temperature than UCT.

The adaptability and heat tolerance of Cholistani cows make them an ideal option for farmers looking to produce high quality milk or meat in hot climates. The government, veterinarians and researchers should continue providing support to these cows so they can reach their full potential.

Milk Production

The Cholistani is a Zebu breed of cattle primarily used in dairy production. Originating from the Cholistan Desert area, this resilient breed is thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant and multi-purpose. Elite specimens of the breed can produce up to 15-18 liters of milk per day on average. On average, a Cholistani cow can produce around 1,500 to 1,800 kilograms (3,300 to 4,000 pounds) of milk over a lactation period of 210 days. Data on 18 biometric traits of 325 lactating Cholistani cows have revealed an average milk yield of 1029.68 kg with a standard deviation 44.35 kg over the period 2005 to 2009. Not only are these cows used for milk production but they are also utilized as draft animals and for meat purposes.

Meat Quality

Cholistani cattle are known for their quality meat. This is due to their thermo-tolerant and tick-resistant nature, which makes them ideal for raising in hot climates. They also have large sized flabby bodies with a distinctive hump on the back that is larger than most other breeds. Studies have shown that male calves from this breed can be used as a good source of quality beef. The average of these traits indicated that Cholistani cows breed are of medium type and have reddish brown coats with white patches being the most common color pattern, along with black. All these characteristics make Cholistani cattle an ideal choice when it comes to producing high-quality meat.

Calving Ease and Fertility Rate

Calving ease and fertility rate are important traits to consider when selecting cattle. Cholistani cows, a breed originating in Pakistan, are known for their calving ease and fertility rate. The genetic analysis revealed that there was appreciable additive genetic variance in production traits of Cholistani cattle indicating substantial scope for improvement. Studies have shown calf sex had a significant influence on survival rates, with the mean birth weight for all calves being 19.13 ± 0.06Kg. In addition, factors such as scrotal circumference in males and age at first heat or first calving in females can impact calving ease and fertility rates. Research has also found that cows with a poorer milking temperament at the time of their first calving tend to have difficulty during this process compared to cows with higher milking temperaments. When considering reproductive traits of Dhofari cow breeds, the average values for age at maturity, age at first calving, gestation period and calving interval were 1112, 1390, 278 and 480 days respectively. While these values may be larger than other breeds of cattle, Cholistani cattle are still considered easy to calve due to their smaller size compared to other breeds.

Disease Resistance and Immunity Level

The Cholistani breed of cattle is renowned for its remarkable resistance to disease and heat, as well as its tolerance to ticks and other environmental factors. This breed is known for having high immunity levels and a strong resistance to infectious diseases, nutritional stress, heat stress, and climate change. Studies have found that the prevalence of disease in the Cholistani breed is significantly lower than other breeds, with 51.6% showing signs of resistance. The breed’s genetic makeup has been studied in order to identify genes associated with immune response and disease associations. Additionally, research has focused on the animal level body characteristics such as size, ears, tail length that may affect disease resistance. Nutritional management has also been found to play an important role in improving immune response as well as metabolic health in this breed of cattle. Overall, the Cholistani breed demonstrate remarkable tolerance to extreme weather conditions while being resistant to tick-borne diseases and providing high levels of immunity against common diseases.

Temperament and Behavior

Cholistani cows are a breed of Zebu or Bos indicus cattle found in the Cholistan desert in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. They are usually speckled red, brown, and white. This breed is known for its distinctive large hump on its back which is larger than that of other breeds like the Dhanni.

The temperaments and behaviors of this breed have been studied extensively by Elrabie et al., 2009 who observed that Cholistani cows have body sizes medium than Dhanni cows with pendulous ears, long tail similar to other Zebu breeds. Additionally, they also found that acclimating B. indicus × B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved behavioral expression of temperament and hastened puberty attainment.

Some farmers mentioned that the “strong” temperament of this breed can be an advantage for survival, specifically to protect offspring from predators while others highlighted the average values for productive traits such as lactation length, lactation yield, calving interval and age at first calving etc (Elrabie et al., 2009). For dairy breeds, likeability would consider milk production, temperament and resistance to disease while in beef breeds it would include calving ease, birth weight and feed efficiency etc (By 1974).

Lifespan of Cholistani Cows

Cholistani cows are a unique breed that is known for its long lifespan, heat tolerance and tick-resistance. These hardy animals have been around since ancient times, with archaeological evidence suggesting their origin dates back to the Indus Valley civilization. The average lifespan of Cholistani cows ranges from 15-20 years depending on their diet and care. They are noted for producing high quality milk and are also renowned for being exceptionally productive in terms of longevity and productivity life. On average, Cholistani cows produce 2270kg of milk during a lactation period, while their body size and proportions reach maturity by two years of age. Moreover, factors such as the size of the hump on its back (which is larger than any other breed) make this particular cow breed distinct from others. All in all, with proper diet and care Cholistani cows can live up to 20 years or more!

Feed Requirements of the Cholistani Cow

Cholistani cows are a breed of cattle found in the Cholistan Desert area of Pakistan and India. They are Zebu or Bos indicus cattle, a species known for their hardiness and resistance to harsh conditions. The Cholistani is a multi-purpose breed, being used for both meat and milk production as well as draft work. Their typical milk yield is 15–18 litres per day. To ensure optimal performance of these animals, they must be provided with adequate nutrition and feeding resources, such as natural range lands or fattening rations. A study conducted on 325 lactating Cholistani cows revealed that 18 biometric traits can be used to explain their performance under different dietary regimes. In addition to this, there have been several initiatives by the Government of Pakistan to preserve this important dairy cattle breed at Jugaitpir Farm in Punjab province. Therefore, providing the right feed resources to Cholistani cows is essential for maintaining their health and productivity.

Uses for the Cholistani Cow

Cholistani cows are a breed of cattle found in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. They are popular for their dairy production, as their milk is prized for its high quality. Cholistani cows are also known to be thermotolerant and resistant to tick infestations. Preliminary data suggests that Cholistani cows can produce an average of 1029.68kgs of milk in one lactation cycle, with a lactation length of 209.47 days and a dry period of 237.87 days. These traits make them ideal for dairy production, as they can withstand hot climates while still producing more milk than other breeds. Furthermore, genetic testing has revealed useful biological indicators which can be used to assess heat stress tolerance in Cholistani cattle, making them invaluable to farmers in hotter climates.

Cost of a Cholistani Cow

The cost of a Cholistani cow varies based on the breed, quality, and availability. Generally, Cholistani cows are a type of Zebu or Bos indicus cattle that is used mostly for dairy production. This breed originated from the Cholistan Desert area in Pakistan and India and is known for being thermo-tolerant and tick-resistant. High quality specimens can yield up to 18 liters of milk per day.

The average cost for a Cholistani cow depends on factors such as age, gender, size, health condition, and other traits that can be evaluated through factor analysis with promax rotation. In addition to this, the government of Pakistan has set up nucleus herds/flocks of Cholistani cattle and sheep in order to study their genetics for use in large scale breeding projects.

In general, the price range for a Cholistani cow starts at $200 and goes up depending on quality and availability. Prices may also vary depending on where you purchase them from as well as any additional fees that may apply. It is important to note that due to climate change effects such as heat stress on animals, it is important to consider other factors such as oxidative stress when evaluating the cost of these animals before making any purchases.

How to Care for a Cholistani Cow

Caring for a Cholistani cow is an important task if you want to maximize milk production, as well as ensure the health and happiness of your animal. Here are some tips on how to properly care for this breed:

1. Provide plenty of space and exercise – Cholistani cows are very active animals that need plenty of space to roam, graze, and exercise. Make sure your animal has enough land to move around freely in order to keep them healthy and productive.

2. Give plenty of fresh food and water – Cholistani cows require a high-quality diet for optimal milk production and health. Feed your cow fresh grasses or hay, nutritious grains, legumes, minerals, vitamins and other feed supplements as needed. Make sure they always have access to clean water too!

3. Monitor their health regularly – Keep an eye on your cow’s health by routinely checking its temperature, weight, coat condition, eyesight etc., looking out for any signs of illness or injury. Seek veterinary help immediately if needed.

4. Take preventative measures against disease – Vaccinate your cow regularly against common illnesses such as Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) or Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). In addition to vaccinations, practice good hygiene and sanitation standards in the barns/pens where your animals live in order to reduce risk of disease transmission among them or even from other sources such as rodents or wild birds/insects outside the facility etc.,

5. Provide a comfortable shelter – Cholistani cows need shelter from extreme weather conditions such as heat or cold temperatures; rain; snow; wind etc., Ensure that

Breeding Options for the Cholistani Cow

Breeding options for the Cholistani cow are available to meet the needs of a wide variety of agricultural and livestock production operations. This multi-purpose breed is used for both meat and milk, as well as for draft animal purposes. Cholistanis are Zebu or Bos indicus cattle, typically of medium size. Factor analysis with promax rotation has identified four key traits that define the breed: small horns, good milk production, inhabiting the Cholistan desert area, and being descended from nomads. Elite specimens have been known to produce 15-18L of milk per day when maintained in proper conditions. Today, Cholistani cows make up approximately 47% of Pakistan’s total livestock population. Breeding options are available to help farmers create productive herds that can meet their individual needs and goals while maintaining the unique characteristics of this valuable breed.


The Cholistani cattle is an important dual-purpose breed originating from the Cholistan desert in Pakistan and India. It is a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed with dairy potential and water tolerance. This breed has been found to have substantial scope for genetic improvement in production traits. Studies have revealed that the animals are of medium size, with large flabby bodies and good milk producing ability. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors which had significant contribution in determining their productivity. Thus, the Cholistani cattle are an important source of food security and economic development for local producers.

Increase Milk Production in Cows and Buffalo

Do you own a dairy farm and want to increase your milk production? Are you looking for ways to boost the productivity of your cows and buffalo? If so, this blog post is for you! We’ll explore some tips and tricks to help you get more milk from your animals in no time.


Milk production is an important part of the agricultural industry in many countries. Cattle and buffaloes are the most common animals used to produce milk, with cows providing 81% of world milk production and buffalo 15%. However, there has been a decline in buffalo milk production since 1985-86, while cow milk production has increased marginally. To address this issue, farmers have looked to a combination of dietary supplementation and technological advances to increase milk production from cows and buffaloes. Recombinant derived bovine growth hormone (bSTH) has been shown to be effective in increasing both milk production and mammary growth in dairy cows. Additionally, small-scale producers often employ mixed crop–livestock systems for raising one or two buffalo animals, which can improve overall farm efficiency by utilizing local resources more effectively. Research has also suggested that high producing cows have higher fertility rates than low producing ones. All these factors point towards the need for a comprehensive approach towards increasing milk yields from both cattle and buffaloes.

Understanding the Anatomy of Cows and Buffalo

Understanding the anatomy of cows and buffalo is important for dairy farmers who need to maximize milk production. Cows and buffalo have different anatomical characteristics that can affect their milk yield. For instance, the internal arrangement of mammary tissue, cisternal fraction of milk, and teat canal length are different in buffaloes compared to cows. Reproductive physiology also plays a role in the amount of milk produced by cows and buffalo, as does nutrition requirements for both species. Additionally, the use of recombinant derived bovine growth hormone (bSTH) has been found to dramatically increase mammary growth and milk production in both species. Furthermore, identification of farm animals is essential for proper management such as breeding a cow in estrus or recording milk yield data. Lastly, advances in automatic milking systems have allowed more efficient robotic milking techniques but are still being optimized for buffalo cows due to concerns about adaptability.

Nutrition for Increasing Milk Production

Nutrition plays an important role when it comes to increasing milk production in cows and buffaloes. To ensure peak milk yields, producers should focus on providing their animals with proper nutrition during the dry period as well as throughout lactation.

Providing a balanced diet containing adequate amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and fats is essential for the health and productivity of these animals. Ensuring the correct dietary calcium and phosphorus levels can help support bone development and maintain the fat content of milk. Additionally, supplementing buffers may reduce rumen acidosis which can affect milk production.

Producers should also be sure to provide good-quality forages that are harvested promptly and stored properly to maximize nutritional value. Utilizing high-quality molasses blocks can increase efficiency of ruminant production by providing a simple motivator for communities that keep large herds. Using trace minerals from organic sources in animal nutrition can further help to increase milk yield while maintaining optimal health.

Lastly, milking animals should be fed 2 kg of compound cattle feed per day for body maintenance as well as an additional 400 g for cows or 500 g for buffaloes in order to achieve peak yields. Providing a mineral mixture of

Feeds and Forage for Dairy Cows

Feeds and forages are essential components of a dairy cow’s diet, providing the necessary nutrients for high milk production. Forages such as hay, silage, and grass should make up the majority of a cow’s diet and provide her with carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins. To maximize milk production from dairy cows it is important to provide them with high-quality forages that are rich in protein and energy. Additionally, diets should be supplemented with grains or other feedstuffs to ensure that the cow’s nutrient needs are met. It is also important to avoid large variations in forage quality as this can lead to digestive disturbances in cows. Finally, lactating cows should be fed ad libitum access to feedstuffs so they can consume enough dietary energy to sustain high levels of milk production.

Utilizing Biotics to Increase Milk Production

Biotics are substances that can be used to increase milk production in cows and buffalo. Many farmers are now turning to biotics, such as recombinant derived bovine growth hormone (bSTH), to help increase their herd’s milk production and mammary growth. Other promising approaches include the use of buffaloes for more sustainable milk production, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to reduce stress on the animals. Biotics can also improve the digestive metabolism, nutrient availability and uptake in the gut, allowing cows and buffalo to produce more milk with higher quality nutrition. Dairy farmers are also using additives like rumen-protected essential ingredients, phytobiotics, probiotic, prebiotic and others to improve early lactation performance and peak milk yield. To maximize the benefits of biotics it is important that farmers have an effective plan in place for feed management during dry periods as well as optimal milking process control during lactation. Finally, proper feeding practices should be followed when working with cattle or buffalo in tropical climates. By utilizing biotics properly farmers can significantly increase their herd’s milk value through increased yields.

Managing Stress Levels in Livestock

Managing stress levels in livestock is an important component of any successful farming operation. The effects of stress can be wide-ranging and have a significant effect on animal health, productivity, and profitability. Heat stress in dairy cattle is one of the top causes of decreased production and fertility. Dairy farmers need to be aware of their animals’ susceptibility to heat stress and take steps to reduce its effects. Sustainability in livestock production systems is largely affected by climate change, with warmer environments leading to decreased milk production, fertility, conception rate, and the overall health and immunity of animals.

Crossbred animals are especially susceptible to heat stress, making it even more necessary for dairy farmers to have a plan in place for managing the temperature levels around their herds. Good dry period nutrition and management practices are also key factors in reducing negative post-calving impacts on health and performance. Feeding management programs should also be evaluated regularly as poor practices can lead to shorter lactations with lower yields or increased calving intervals.

Finally, human-animal interactions are essential for successful dairy operations as milking is often performed twice per day. It’s important that these interactions remain positive; when buffalo cows become stressed even by minor events such as handling or transportation

Cleanliness and Hygiene Practices for Dairy Animals

Cleanliness and hygiene practices are essential for the production of safe and high-quality milk from dairy animals. Proper milking techniques and hygienic conditions can help prevent the spread of bacterial contamination in raw milk. The most effective way to ensure clean milk is to practice good animal husbandry, cleanliness, and hygiene during all phases of milking.

Good dairy farm management should include regular cleaning of milking equipment and supplies, providing clean bedding for cows, avoiding overcrowding, choosing healthy animals for milking, washing udders and teats before milking with soap and water or an approved sanitizer, using separate pre-dip buckets per cow at each milking session, discarding first drawn milk from teat cups after each cow is complete with milking process etc.

All personnel who handle cows or their milk should take appropriate precautions to protect themselves against zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis or Q fever by wearing protective clothing (gloves etc.) when handling fresh manure or infected animals. Additionally, proper drainage systems must be provided in all areas where cows are kept in order to reduce the risk of contamination from standing water.

To conclude, good hygiene practices at

Weight Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

Weight management is an essential part of dairy animal care. Maintaining a healthy weight in cows and buffaloes is essential for optimal milk production and overall health. A variety of strategies can be used to ensure that animals are at an appropriate weight. Feeding cattle/buffaloes with high-quality forage, ensuring a consistent feed supply, and providing adequate nutrition are all important factors for maintaining a healthy weight in dairy animals. In addition, providing access to clean water, encouraging exercise, washing the animals twice a day, and supplementing with minerals can help improve milk production and health outcomes. The use of MNBs (Mastitis Nutritional Balance) appears to motivate farmers to readily improve their cattle/buffalo production efficiency as they rapidly see visible evidence of improved animal health and productivity. Therefore, proper weight management strategies are necessary for optimal milk production in dairy animals.

Utilizing Hormones to Increase Milk Yields

Hormones play a vital role in increasing milk yield in cows and buffalo. The use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bSTH) has been found to have a significant effect on the increase of milk production and mammary growth. Studies have shown that administration of growth hormone under heat stress can increase daily milk yield by 3.8-12%, while fat yield is increased by 9.5-12.7%. Additionally, the use of nutritional manipulation with galactogogues during winter months can help overcome the decline in goat milk production. Bovine somatotropin is also used to directly stimulate increased milk production in dairy cows and has proven successful, with typical increases of 10-15%. Other hormones, such as oxytocin, are used to manage the milking process and increase yields by stimulating neuro endocrine processes involved in milk ejection. Lastly, selective breeding techniques are utilized to improve the genes responsible for producing higher amounts and better quality of milk proteins and hormones.

Reproductive Management Techniques to Maximize Milk Output

Reproductive management techniques can help increase the milk output of cows and buffaloes. Proper timing, record keeping, and a number of other practices can ensure maximum reproductive performance in your herd.

Start cows with a successful dry period prior to peak lactation. Milk yield at the peak of lactation is an important factor in determining potential milk production for the year. Make sure to deworm animals regularly as worms in the stomach will drastically reduce milk yield. Do not tie animals in direct sunlight and make sure feed bunks are never empty for long periods of time.

Regularly washing and drying the udder is also essential for proper let down of milk during milking sessions, which should be done with gentle massage for about 45 –60 seconds each time. Additionally, keep accurate breeding records including dates of heat, service and parturition, as these can be used to predict future heat cycles and optimize reproductive performance accordingly. Finally, consider implementing improved feeding programmes that focus on improving milk yields, fat content levels and reducing feeding costs per animal. Through such programmes you can maximize calf production each year while increasing productivity overall.

Genetics as a Tool to Increase Herd Output

Genetics is widely being used as a tool to increase herd output. By using genetic marker approaches, it is possible to identify animals with the most desirable traits and use those animals for breeding and selection purposes. Through this method, milk components and milk somatic cell counts can be slightly affected in order to increase milk yield. Additionally, recombinant derived bovine growth hormone (bSTH) has a dramatic effect on increasing milk production and mammary growth in cows and buffaloes. Furthermore, higher heritabilities of first lactation traits have been observed, suggesting sufficient additive genetic variability that can be exploited through implementation of a genetic evaluation program. As such, by selecting buffaloes with the AA haplotype, it is more likely that milk production traits will increase significantly. This makes genetics an effective way to improve herd output by selecting animals with desirable traits to breed from.

Developing Balanced Rations Based on Nutritional Requirements of Livestock

Developing balanced rations based on nutritional requirements of livestock is essential for ensuring their health, growth, and productivity. A balanced ration should provide the necessary nutrients in the correct proportions to meet the animal’s needs. This includes energy, protein, minerals, vitamins, and other micronutrients. When formulating a balanced ration, it is important to consider factors such as availability of feedstuffs, cost effectiveness, animal requirements for specific nutrients and digestibility of different feedstuffs.

For dairy cows and buffaloes producing milk at high levels, a diet must supply the nutrients needed for production while maintaining overall health of the animals. Feed intake (dry-matter intake) and feed efficiency are key components in achieving this goal. Nutrient masters provide information on dry matter requirements, concentrate to forage ratios, and requirements for maintenance, growth and milk production. Carbohydrates (energy), amino acids (protein), fatty acids (fat) and other micronutrients must be included in an appropriate ratio in order to ensure optimal productivity from dairy cows and buffaloes.

In addition to feeding balanced rations that meet nutrient requirements for each stage of lactation (early lactation requires more energy than later stages),

Proper Use of Health Supplements for Dairy Animals

Proper use of health supplements for dairy animals is an important practice to ensure maximum milk production. Dairy cows have specific nutritional requirements for optimal performance, and providing the right balance of nutrients can be challenging. Supplementing feed with energy- and/or protein-rich feeds is essential in order to meet the nutritional needs of these animals. Protein is required for growth, tissue repair and milk production, and good sources include leguminous forage, grain and other feedstuffs such as fish meal or soybean meal. Additionally, amino acids containing sulphuric acids such as cysteine and vitamins A, E and other antioxidants help improve milk quality. Supplementing FFS (fat-free solids) during mid-lactation has been associated with improved lactation performance, feed utilization efficiency and increased milk yield. Good management practices should also be employed such as starting cows with a successful dry period before lactation begins which will help ensure healthier cows that are better able to cope with their nutritional needs over time.

Enhancing Immunity of Cows and Buffalo

Cows and buffaloes are an important source of milk in many parts of the world. To maximize the production of milk from these animals, it is important to ensure their health and well-being. Enhancing the immunity of cows and buffaloes is one way to ensure that they remain healthy and productive.

Immunity refers to the body’s ability to protect itself against disease-causing organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Cows and buffaloes are vulnerable to a variety of diseases, so having a strong immune system is essential for their survival. There are several ways that farmers can help enhance the immunity of their cows and buffaloes.

One way is to provide them with good quality feed that includes all essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, etc. A balanced diet will help maintain optimal health in cows and buffaloes by providing them with energy for growth and development as well as strengthening their immune systems. Additionally, providing adequate amounts of clean water is also necessary for proper hydration.

Another way to enhance immunity in cows and buffaloes is by using vaccines or other immunostimulants that stimulate the animal’s


The conclusion from this study is that dairy cows and buffaloes can be improved for milk production with the help of recombinant derived bovine growth hormones, increased body weight at birth, dietary supplementation, and adequate nutrition. In addition, a dairy marketing system that caters to local as well as international breeds can increase the number of buffalo and cattle. Fortnightly test-day milk yield showed an overall increase until TD-3 before declining steadily with advancement of lactation. Finally, nutrition is by far the most important factor responsible for low productivity in dairy goats in some parts of the world.


Lumpy Skin Disease Herbal Treatment in Pakistan

Are you looking for an alternative to traditional treatments for lumpy skin disease? If so, then you’ve come to the right place! In this blog post, we will explore a range of herbal remedies that can help treat this condition. Read on to find out more!

What is Lumpy Skin Disease?

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral cattle disease that affects the skin and internal organs of infected animals. It is caused by the poxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus. The disease is characterized by nodules, or “lumps”, which form on the skin and in some cases may cause death. Common clinical signs of LSD include fever, loss of appetite, dehydration and anemia. In severe cases, the lumps can form ulcers which can lead to secondary bacterial infections.

LSD can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or through contact with contaminated objects such as needles or fly bites. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent LSD outbreaks; however if an outbreak does occur it is important to isolate infected animals and seek veterinary advice. Treatment consists of supportive care such as fluids and antibiotics as well as specific antiviral medications that can reduce symptoms and limit spread of the virus.

Causes and Symptoms of Lumpy Skin Disease

Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cattle and water buffalo in Africa, the Middle East, Europe and parts of Asia. Common symptoms include fever, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and multiple nodules (measuring 2–5 cm in diameter) on the skin. These nodules are usually firm to the touch and have a characteristic lumpy appearance. Other signs of infection can include hypersalivation, lacrimation, eye discharge, and swollen eyelids. Animals may also become unresponsive to stimuli or show signs of severe depression. Diagnosis is usually done through histopathology or virus isolation from samples taken from the affected areas. Treatment for LSD involves using antiviral medications such as CombiVet or Uberin intramuscularly twice a day for five days. In some cases ethno-treatment with household herbs like neem leaves or holy basil (Thulsi) have been found to be effective in treating this disease as well.

Herbal Remedies for Lumpy Skin Disease

Herbal remedies can provide effective relief for cattle suffering from Lumpy Skin Disease. Common ingredients used in these treatments include garlic, neem leaves, henna leaves and coconut or sesame seeds. Another option is to use an antifungal agent like Lamisil. In addition, Anthralin (Drithocreme, Micanol) can help to reduce inflammation and psoriasis symptoms. Ayurvedic medicine is also a popular choice of treatment for this disease, specifically Giloy which helps boost the animal’s immunity and prevent infection. Combivet and Uberin are also recommended intramuscular treatments that should be taken twice a day for five days at 1-2ml per 10kg of body weight. Lastly, Sulphur tincture or cerate are suggested topically for warts and excrescences with a potency up to thirtieth strength internally. With careful consideration of all the options available, herbal remedies can provide effective relief from Lumpy Skin Disease in cattle.

Neem (Azadirachta indica)

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an ancient medicinal plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. It belongs to the family of meliaceae and is native to South Asia, with large populations found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Neem has a long history of being used as a natural remedy to treat many skin disorders such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, warts, and even skin cancer.

The leaves of the neem plant are rich in active ingredients known as nimbin which have anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce redness and swelling associated with certain skin conditions. Other active compounds like terpenes are known for their antibacterial properties which can help fight off harmful bacteria on the surface of the skin. Neem oil extracted from the seeds of neem tree is also highly beneficial for treating various skin conditions due to its antioxidant activity which helps reduce oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Neem can be consumed either orally or applied topically depending on your individual needs. For topical use it can be blended with other healing herbs like turmeric or aloe vera and applied directly to affected areas or consumed in capsule form as part of an oral supplement regimen. When taken orally it’s important to make sure you’re getting a high quality extract from a reputable source since some extracts can contain toxic levels of certain compounds if not carefully monitored during manufacturing process.

In conclusion, neem (Azadirachta indica) is an incredibly powerful medicinal plant that has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various skin disorders such as acne,

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a powerful natural remedy used in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions. Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that help reduce redness and swelling of the skin and fight off bacteria or fungi that may be causing an infection. Studies have also suggested that curcumin could help reduce drug efflux, making it an effective agent in the treatment of several skin diseases.

Turmeric can be consumed orally as a spice or tea, or it can be applied topically to the affected area as a paste made from turmeric powder mixed with water or oil. Turmeric is often combined with other herbs such as neem leaves, holy basil (Thulsi), henna leaves and black peppers to create herbal mixtures for treating lumpy skin disease in cows.

Consuming turmeric regularly is beneficial for overall health, but it should not be taken without first consulting your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Always use caution when using this herbal remedy externally on your skin, as it may cause irritation in some people.

Garlic (Allium sativum)

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a popular herb used in cooking and medicinal purposes. It has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions such as acne, eczema and fungal infections. Garlic contains powerful compounds such as allicin, which has antibacterial and anti-fungal properties that help to combat infection. It also contains sulfur compounds which can help reduce inflammation and provide relief from skin irritations. Garlic can be taken orally, applied topically or consumed in garlic supplements. For best results, it is important to consume fresh garlic daily or take garlic supplements that are standardized for allicin content.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular medicinal herb and spice that has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. It has a unique flavor and aroma that makes it an essential ingredient in many dishes. Ginger is rich in antioxidants which can help to reduce inflammation, improve digestion, and aid in the prevention of certain diseases. It is also believed to have anti-viral properties, making it an effective treatment for the lumpy skin disease virus. The root can be eaten raw or cooked, added to teas or taken as supplements. In addition to its medicinal benefits, ginger has long been known as an effective remedy for nausea, motion sickness and other digestive issues.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a herb with powerful anti-inflammatory properties that can be used to treat a variety of skin conditions. It has been studied for its efficacy in treating high-prevalence diseases such as the immune system, liver, and lumpy skin disease. Licorice root extract is often used to treat acne and eczema due to its ability to reduce redness, swelling, and irritation. In one study conducted over two weeks, licorice extract was found to have a positive effect on black molly fish when used as a skin-whitening agent. For the treatment of lumpy skin disease in livestock animals, licorice can help reduce the physical symptoms associated with the virus such as ulcerations and scarring. This herbal remedy should always be administered under the guidance of an experienced veterinarian or healthcare practitioner.

Calendula officinalis

Calendula officinalis, commonly known as Marigold, is an herb with a long history of use in herbal medicine. It has been used to soothe inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes in disorders such as varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and lumpy skin disease. It has been found to have strong antibacterial properties which can help fight infection and reduce inflammation. Calendula can be taken orally or applied topically in the form of an oil or cream for treating skin conditions. Marigold extract is also available in supplement form. When used properly, this powerful herb can provide relief from many common skin issues and help promote overall health.

Echinacea purpurea

Echinacea purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family that is native to North America. It has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb for its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulating properties. The plant is characterized by its purple flowers and cone-shaped center. The leaves are lanceolate or oval shaped and range from deep green to grayish green in color. Echinacea purpurea has been used to treat various ailments ranging from colds and flu to skin conditions such as psoriasis and acne. It may also help reduce inflammation and boost the immune system, helping protect against infections. Studies have also shown that it can be used as an anti-cancer agent, although more research is needed in this area. Echinacea purpurea can be taken as a supplement in capsule form or brewed into a tea for drinking.

Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum, more commonly known as St. John’s Wort, is a flowering plant which has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. It is an herb with powerful medicinal properties, and has been found to be effective in treating depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues. The active ingredient in Hypericum perforatum is hyperforin, which acts on the nervous system to produce antidepressant effects. Research also suggests that the plant may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, making it helpful in treating skin issues such as eczema and psoriasis. Additionally, Hypericum perforatum has been shown to be beneficial in treating viral infections like hepatitis C as well as various digestive problems like ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In veterinary medicine it is often used to treat lumpy skin disease in animals. Hypericum perforatum is available in many forms including capsules, tinctures and tea; it can also be applied topically for skin conditions such as wounds or mild irritation.

The Spanish taps

The Spanish taps is a traditional way of harvesting water in Spain. This centuries-old method involves tapping into the natural resources, including springs, streams and rivers. The taps are placed on the side of the riverbanks and connected to a collection system. The water is then channeled through channels to fill reservoirs or irrigation canals. This method has been used for centuries in Spain and is still used today by many people living in rural areas.

The Spanish taps provide an alternative source of clean drinking water for those who may not have access to municipal sources due to their remote location or financial limitations. It also helps conserve water as it is collected directly from the source and stored in reservoirs. This method also reduces waste since it does not require any electricity or power sources to operate.

The Spanish tap system has been proven to be very reliable over time, providing clean drinking water that can easily be accessed by anyone with access to these systems. The use of these taps also helps reduce pollution as no chemicals are added in order to purify the water before it enters homes or businesses. Additionally, this system helps conserve energy since no pumps are needed, reducing energy costs for those who rely on them for their daily needs.

Aloe vera

Aloe vera is a succulent plant that is native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used for centuries as a natural remedy due to its many benefits. The gel found in the leaves of an aloe vera plant contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants that can help soothe skin irritations, reduce inflammation, speed up wound healing and even improve digestive health. Aloe vera is also known to be antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory – making it a powerful medicinal plant with multiple uses. In addition to its medicinal properties, aloe vera can also be used as an ingredient in beauty products such as moisturizers, sunscreens and hair care products. It can be consumed orally or applied topically for maximum benefit. Aloe vera has truly earned its reputation as a miracle plant – with endless possibilities for improving your health!

 Astragalus membranaceus

Astragalus membranaceus, also known as Huang qi, is a flowering herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. It’s known for its many health benefits and is thought to help improve overall health and well-being. Astragalus has been used for centuries to treat various ailments such as colds, flu, fatigue, anemia, cancer and much more. The active components of Astragalus are polysaccharides which have anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting effects on the body. Studies have also found that Astragalus may be beneficial in treating skin diseases like photodermatitis and lumpy skin disease. It has also been used to help improve energy levels, reduce fatigue, enhance digestion and boost the body’s natural defences against infections. Astragalus can be taken orally or applied topically to the affected area of skin when treating skin diseases.


In conclusion, Lumpy Skin Disease (LSDV) is a contagious virus that affects cattle and causes huge economic losses in the affected areas. It is transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes or by direct contact with infected animals. Clinical signs of this disease can include skin nodules, fever, loss of appetite and emaciation. Diagnosis of LSDV can be done using PCR test or serological tests like ELISA test. Treatment includes mass vaccination of cattle in affected areas, strict regulation of imported animals and animal products from countries where the virus is present, and the use of herbal treatments composed of Haldi, Impel Folliculitis, Cellulitis and Lyme Disease to help reduce symptoms.

what dry cow mean

What Dry Cows Mean?

Many people may not even realize this, but dairy cows do not milk all of the time. cows produce milk after they’ve had a baby, and they can make milk for several months after giving birth, including after the calf has been weaned off milk is eating grass, hay, or grain. So the cows are given a broken sort of like a vacation. During this break, they will produce milk and they’ll prepare to have another calf. This rest time for the cows is referred to Continue Reading

10 Cow Dairy Farm Income In Pakistan

How Cow Rearing?

I’m going to tell you about cow rearing for-profit cow is a very useful domestic animal dairy cows are reared exclusively to produce milk. In this session, we will learn the selection of breed of cows how to feed cows for more milk, the clearing of cows, calves here and the management of pregnant cows housing. So, first, let’s talk about the selection of cow breed. Proper selection is the first and most important step that is adopted in dairy animals should be selected according to the climate, the animal should be selected based on its breed characters. Production of animals also varies within a breed. Other factors affecting milk production are the age of the animal frequency of milking, management, type of nutrition, environment, stage of pregnancy etc.

milk production capacity, disease resistance, physical resistance, adaptability and heat tolerance, temperament and dairy disposition so the spirit breed of cows in India indigenous high milk yielding breeds in India include read Cindy Sahiba and give exotic or foreign breeds of cows include jersey, Holstein Frazier, and browns with Indian breeds of cows with high milk yielding capacity and linear lactation period across with bullets of exotic breeds to upgrade the quality of Indian breeds high milk yielding cows the blood through crossbreeding are currents with a Frazier, the fellows in India by feathers or the melt animals, which provide us with a large amount of milk. Buffalo milk is the largest source of milk in India. Mora a high yielding breed of a fellow from Punjab and Haryana yields 26 to 30 litres of milk per day Mehsana from khasra yields up to 15 to 20 litres of milk every day. Other high milk yielding varieties includes jofra body nearly Nagpur and sooty.

How to Feed cows for more milk. proper food and nutrition are important for the well being of milk animals. The food given to the animal is called a feed. The feed contains all the components essential for growth and development. animal feed comprises roughage and concentrates the food of the cow determines the quality and quantity of milk produced. It is important that the farmer meets the nutritional requirements of a dairy cow by providing adequate rations. For a healthy and productive cow feed, Russia must have a balance of quantity, quality protein, minerals and vitamins. A refers to coarse, fibrous substances with low nutrient content in the animal feed. Animals get referred from substances such as strong green fodder, stylage, and legumes. fodder is a heavy fodder that is full of energy and protein. It is concentrated in foods that are low in fiber and are rich in nutrients.

It is rich in carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, grains, seeds, sweets, bran, rice bran, alfalfa and alfalfa and provides all essential nutrients. Dairy animals also require adjectives comprising non-nutritive material, For example, disease-fighting antibiotics and growth hormones. These substances are added to feed to increase the growth and production of animal milk and to protect against disease. These are important for high milk production in dairy cows. A dairy cow should consume 15 to 20 kg afforded daily caring of cows and carts. It is important to pay attention to the health and hygiene status of the cows and calves. keep them clean and dry. Cows need many dairy components to stay healthy. high yielding dairy cows require high amounts of protein such as mixed wheat feed, alfalfa, and other protein supplements. They also require salts and minerals.

Feed them well in the morning with all nutritious foods. Sitting in the shelter all day weakens their bowls. They should be left in the open ground twice a day, as it keeps them active. Maintaining cows and good and medium weight is very important to ensure their health. Please jute bags over the cow shed in winter. provide fresh and clean water to your animals during all seasons. Consult the wet for advice. It is recommended to us as cows once every two months. Good foods ensure good health and maximum production. Always try to provide an adequate quantity of high quality and nutritious food to cows. Greens help to maximise milk production. add as many greens as possible to regular feed make a grazing place for your cows. dairy cows require more water than any other animal. Their milk contains a large amount of water.

Generally, a dairy cow needs about five litres of water to produce one litre of milk. breeding of cows the ability to detect heat cycles among your cows and heifers is invaluable if you want to ensure your herd’s reproductive performance. Failure to detect when cows are in heat and breeding cows that aren’t and heat is a major contributor to low fertility and economic loss for producers. recognising signs of heat first standing to be mounted, mounting other vowels, mucus discharge, swelling and reddening of the Whirlpool billowing restlessness and trailing, rubbed, tail head hair and 30 flats, chin resting and back rubbing, sniffing and licking, care and management of pregnant counts. taking good care and proper management is the main step to succeed in any animal husbandry business.

If you realise them on time, management of good care of pregnant animals will yield good carbs and high milk yield. immunise girls against diseases. There should be a separate shelter room for pregnant comes. Feed quality feeds good quality of leguminous feed still Further, wheat bran, oats and lizard oil seeds provide calcium supplements. special care should be taken about mineral and vitamin deficiencies, as they can cause serious adverse effects on the newly born calf. The animal should neither be lean nor fat. Water should be provided for drinking at frequent intervals to not allow them to fight with other animals. a wider slippery condition that causes fractures, dislocations, etc.

Housing to keep the cows healthy, productive and free from diseases good habitat is very important with proper ventilation system and ensure adequate flow of fresh air and light inside the house. A concrete house is very suitable for God’s proper drainage of rainwater should be arranged to maintain a healthy environment. A lot of water is required for farm operations such as washing, farming, processing of milk etc. A continuous water supply is essential electricity must be available on the shed. farms should be away from the noise-producing factory or chemical industry. industrial waste materials in the form of gaseous or liquid can pollute the surrounding resources

Identifying Sick Livestock in Your Farm

Identifying Sick Livestock in Your Farm

Raising livestock can be challenging. Even with the best management, animals can become sick. Knowing when you have a healthy animal is easy. They’re bright, alert, responsive to their environment, have a shiny hair coat and a good appetite. But do you know when your animals not doing well? Do you know when you should call your veterinarian? Hi, I’m Dr Lisa Lowen. Extension veterinarian for the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Knowing your animal’s normal behaviour and vital signs are an important step in knowing when they’re healthy or not healthy. It’s also crucial that you have a good working relationship with a local veterinarian that can come out when you need them to assess your animal.

Together, you guys can put together a great working relationship for good herd health and overall productivity and longevity of your herd. How do you know if your animals are sick? Generally speaking, anytime their behaviour is off, you should investigate. Ask yourself, are they separating themselves away from the rest of the herd. animals that are sick spend a lot of time by themselves, they may not come up to the feed bunk to eat, they may be seeking solitude in the woods. So you need to check those animals out. Also, look at their general appearance in terms of cleanliness. animals that are not feeling well spend a lot of time lying down, and they may have their flanks covered with dirt and manure. And if they’re the only animal in the herd that looks like that. It’s a good indication that they’re not feeling well. If you have an animal that cannot stand and their recumbent that needs immediate veterinary attention.

Similarly, if you’re seeing any neurologic signs of the animal laying on its side and paddling its legs. If it’s having a seizure, or if it appears blind, you should contact your veterinarian for advice. Also if you have an animal that can stand, but it’s non-weight bearing on one limb that requires immediate attention because there’s a serious lameness issue going on. Eating and drinking is an important part of overall animal health. But sometimes when you have animals out on pasture, you may not know if they’ve been eating. Luckily for us, ruminants have designed an easy way for us to tell. If you go to the left side of the animal, there’s a little triangular area called the parallel lumbar fossa. And we’ve outlined this with some tape.

It starts at the last rib goes across to the hip bone, and then forms a nice little triangle, the rumen or the big large fermentation, that compartment of the stomach lies directly below this parallel lumbar fossa. If the animal has been eating, there’ll be food in the rumen. And this parallel bar fossa will be distended to about the level of the last rib. If the animal has not been eating, this area will become sunken and there will be a very visible triangular indent in the side of the animal. Now again, this is on the left side because that’s where the rumen is on the body. If you notice that your animal has this triangular indent pushed greatly out and they’re having trouble breathing.

That indicates that we’ve got a condition called rumen bloat where there’s too much gas accumulating in that room, and that’s a medical emergency and you need to call your veterinarian right away. So when in doubt, if you’re not sure if your animals have been eating, look at the triangular area of the parallel lumbar fossa. And that will tell you animals that are not drinking enough soon become dehydrated. And as an owner, there’s an easy way for you to check to see if your animals becoming dehydrated. If we grab the skin on the neck and retract it, just pull it gently and let go. It should bounce right back to its normal position. If the skin stays tented after you pull it, that indicates that the animals are dehydrated. You can also do this over the eye and grab the skin over the eye and it should bounce right back.

And then with ruminant animals, animals that chew their cud, there’s also a special thing that happens with them. When they become severely dehydrated, the eye will retract away from the skull and kind of sink back into the head. Some farmers refer to this as being sunken eyes. So if you see that the eyeball itself is sinking back into the skull, that’s a sign of severe dehydration and your veterinarian should be contacted so that fluids can be administered to your animal. It’s always important to monitor urination and defecation in the animals. If you have a male animal and you observe them stretching out with their back legs behind them straining to urinate, you may or may not see urine actually dripping from the previews. But if it’s not a full constant stream of urine, that’s a problem that indicates that they have some sort of urinary tract obstruction and they need immediate medical attention because without it, their bladder will continue to fill with urine and it can potentially rupture. In terms of desiccation. It depends on what kind of ruminant you have. For sheep and goats. They have pelleted faeces and it should remain a normal pellet.

If the pellet becomes loose, clumped or watery diarrhoea That’s a big problem for cattle if it becomes projectile diarrhoea most definitely a problem that warrants having your veterinarian come out. If it’s looser than normal manure, and the animals losing a lot of weight, again, that indicates that you need to contact your veterinarian for an investigative workup. Pneumonia can be a common problem in farm animals. One way that you can tell if your animals having some respiratory issues is to take their respiratory rate. If you stand back and watch their chest move, each time that it moves will count as one respiration. Count that for a minute, and that will give you the respiratory rate. If you go to our website, we will have listings of all the different vital signs including respiratory rates for all the different farm animal species.

Another part of looking to see if your animals having respiratory problems is to check out their nose. A normal healthy animal will have a small amount of clear moisture around both nostrils. And the animal will also be licking their nose a lot to keep them clean farm animals like to keep food and dirt off of their nose. So if you see a lot of feet stuck to the nose, if you see thick mucus coming out or blood coming out, that indicates that you have some sort of respiratory problem and your veterinarian should be contacted so that they can work up the issue for you. One of the best things you can do as an owner is to get the vital signs of your animal before you call your veterinarian. That gives them a better idea of what may be going on before they come to your farm.

We talked about how you can get the respirations of the animal by counting the chest movements. The other thing you can do is to take a rectal temperature using a regular digital thermometer inserted into the rectum. When it beeps, pull it out, read the temperature and record it on a piece of paper. You can also get the heart rate back here, there’s an artery that runs in the middle of the tail. So if you put your hand about the level of the rectum, let your fingers fall into a natural groove that falls in the middle of the tail, wrap your thumb around just to help hold your fingers in place. And then gently put a little bit of pressure and count for 30 seconds or 15 seconds to get the heart rate per minute.

If you have trouble because the cow moving its tail too much, or they’re a little bit nervous having you hold it, you can also get the heart rate by listening to the heart. To do that, you’re going to need a stethoscope and you can buy an inexpensive, inexpensive stethoscope online or you may be able to buy one at your local Co Op. The heart is located behind the elbow of the animal. So you find the elbow at the top of the leg. And you’re going to take the headpiece of the stethoscope and press it deep underneath that elbow and hold it in place and again count for 15 seconds or 30 and you’ll be able to get the heart rate. You want to make sure that you tuck this in deep because if you don’t, you’re not going to hear the heart.

So once you get it in there, and you hear the rhythmic beating of the heart, again counting for 15 or 30 seconds, get the heart rate recorded, and then you’ll have some good information to give your veterinarian.