Protecting Cows from Mastitis

Protecting Cows from Mastitis

Mastitis is the most common and troubling outcome of immune suppression. As a potential gateway for bacteria, the other has several natural lines of defense. If these defense mechanisms do not completely succeed in preventing invading pathogens from entering the other, the bacteria can travel upwards into the milk ducts and the alveoli should the neutrophils of the immune system become impaired or suppressed infection will occur.

The resulting severe inflammatory reaction mastitis can lead to tissue damage and ultimately to the death of the affected animal. commercially produced bovine bG-CSF(Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) helps restore normal neutrophil function and increases the number of neutrophils improving their ability to destroy invading bacteria. site-specific pegylation prolongs the activity of the molecule by slowing down its degradation inside the cow’s body. As a result, more optimally functioning neutrophils are available so mastitis cannot develop.

what dry cow mean

What Dry Cows Mean?

Many people may not even realize this, but dairy cows do not milk all of the time. cows produce milk after they’ve had a baby, and they can make milk for several months after giving birth, including after the calf has been weaned off milk is eating grass, hay, or grain. So the cows are given a broken sort of like a vacation. During this break, they will produce milk and they’ll prepare to have another calf. This rest time for the cows is referred to Continue Reading

Fodder Importance for Cattle Farming

Hydroponic Fodder Importance for Cattle Farming

The most exciting new animal feed on the planet has just arrived in the US. It’s called fodder, and it’s revolutionizing livestock feeding around the world. But what is Fodder? Fodder is the term used for grains like barley that has sprouted and forms a beautiful Continue Reading

How to Increase Milk Production in Dairy Animals

Today we will discuss how to increase milk production and dairy animals. So the objectives of how to increase milk production did animal

  • Select the appropriate fields for dairy animals
  • Select rations for dairy cows are for maximum production
  • Select portions for replacement animals for fast economical roads
  • Select an appropriate feeding method.

Basic Feeding Facts

  • Feed costs are 40 to 50% of total production costs.
  • Feeding has the most influence on the amount of milk a cow produces.
  • The basis for various options is rough edges.

Methods of Feeding Dairy Cows

Traditional

  • Farm feed concentrates individually based on milk production
  • Most forms we drop it is by free choice.
  • Roughages are fed in feed bunks or managers.
  • Modern forms are moving towards free-choice feeding.

Methods of Feeding Dairy Cows

Challenge or Lead Feeding

  • Challenge the cow to reach its maximum potential for milk production.
  • More concentrates in early lactation.
  • Less concentrates in late lactation
  • When production drops decrease concentrate.
  • Challenge feeding requires good record keeping.

Feeding Total Mixed Rations

  • All or almost all ingredients blended together.
  • Total mixed rations are fed by free choice.
  • Common to place cows and feeding groups.
  • Ration contains roughages and concentrates.
  • Many advantages and disadvantages of this method.

Special Equipment For Feeding Total Mixed Rations

Two Items of Special Equipment or Need

  • Mixer-blender unit
  • Weighing device

Feed Analysis

Recommended regardless of feeding system.

Grouping Cows to Feed Total Mixed Rations

  • Success depends on dividing herd in groups

Automatic Concentrate Feeders

  • Magnetic, electronic and transponder

refuges for dedicated roughly 60 to 80% of dry matter and dirty versions shouldn’t be rough it is rough edges used or a salvage and pasture a wide variety of nutrient value and forages the hay feeding value depends on kind of a majority will result in harvesting method has traditionally been handled and filed form requiring a lot of and level cows feed to more high quality and low quality. alfalfa is the best hay for daily cattle use. Green job so some farmers harvest forage by chopping it daily feeding it in bunks reduces feed losses problems include clay to job each day, moisture content varies considerably salad so it is almost ready crop gave me wade into salad salad is a higher moisture content then dried off it is haylage a crop made into solage calm salad, sparkler roughage refuges for dedicato is easily stored and handled loyal members need supplements. other fields Sorum salvage coastal Bermuda grass, silage, small grain storage straw, called store and pasture grains for dairy cows so grains are included in the ration for energy content grains contain about 70 to 80% total digestible nutrients the grants process prior to feeding our most digestible grains for dairy cows that the use of corn most commonly used will really get Russia’s very high level I must have stored it really high moisture content boards. So the excellent for dedicated lower energy but I even coating the call boards eight fibre in bulk to the grain mix, replace no more than one half the corn in Russia. Barley, so is almost the same as corn the places to 50% of grain ration wheat, high energy and production prices are high for weight no more than 50% of grain ration. Examples protein supplements for dairy cows examples are called gluten meal distillers dried grains, beans and soybean meal
flour mill lasered mean cottonseed meal urea other non protein nitrogen are feeding lactating dairy cows. So, total Rashad content from 18 to 19% crude protein during early lactation reduce group routine to 13% later in lactation period routine degradability should be considered when feeling high producing cows byproducts and other processed meats for dedicated examples are on file forming a file for leaf meat beet pulp brewers where citrus pulp cottonseed or some other examples are corn gluten feed, how many feet months produce Wallace’s potatoes were being hogs and some other examples of wheat abroad it middlings add to these are some examples of byproducts and other courses which are an indicator minerals for dedicated so the requirements are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, these are some major minerals and sulphur abdeen iron, copper, cobalt, manganese
and zinc, selenium and molybdenum minor mammals Why don’t we need a dedicated dairy cows need vitamin D supplements measured doses are fought on mistaken over a long period of time maybe toxic. Six grammes of niacin per cow per day has resulted in increased milk production. What needs a dedicated medic is 85 to 87% water, dairy cows require more water than any other form and even when lactating is the air temperature increases, the need for what else will feed we should provide plenty of water is due to this the milk production increases. body condition score so refers to the amount of where the animal is getting scores range from one to five maxes you for maximum efficiency the records must not be too thin or too fat. So that’s all about how to increase milk production and daily levels.

Cow Rearing

How Cow Rearing?

I’m going to tell you about cow rearing for-profit cow is a very useful domestic animal dairy cows are reared exclusively to produce milk. In this session, we will learn the selection of breed of cows how to feed cows for more milk, the clearing of cows, calves here and the management of pregnant cows housing. So, first, let’s talk about the selection of cow breed. Proper selection is the first and most important step that is adopted in dairy animals should be selected according to the climate, the animal should be selected based on its breed characters. Production of animals also varies within a breed. Other factors affecting milk production are the age of the animal frequency of milking, management, type of nutrition, environment, stage of pregnancy etc.

milk production capacity, disease resistance, physical resistance, adaptability and heat tolerance, temperament and dairy disposition so the spirit breed of cows in India indigenous high milk yielding breeds in India include read Cindy Sahiba and give exotic or foreign breeds of cows include jersey, Holstein Frazier, and browns with Indian breeds of cows with high milk yielding capacity and linear lactation period across with bullets of exotic breeds to upgrade the quality of Indian breeds high milk yielding cows the blood through crossbreeding are currents with a Frazier, the fellows in India by feathers or the melt animals, which provide us with a large amount of milk. Buffalo milk is the largest source of milk in India. Mora a high yielding breed of a fellow from Punjab and Haryana yields 26 to 30 litres of milk per day Mehsana from khasra yields up to 15 to 20 litres of milk every day. Other high milk yielding varieties includes jofra body nearly Nagpur and sooty.

How to Feed cows for more milk. proper food and nutrition are important for the well being of milk animals. The food given to the animal is called a feed. The feed contains all the components essential for growth and development. animal feed comprises roughage and concentrates the food of the cow determines the quality and quantity of milk produced. It is important that the farmer meets the nutritional requirements of a dairy cow by providing adequate rations. For a healthy and productive cow feed, Russia must have a balance of quantity, quality protein, minerals and vitamins. A refers to coarse, fibrous substances with low nutrient content in the animal feed. Animals get referred from substances such as strong green fodder, stylage, and legumes. fodder is a heavy fodder that is full of energy and protein. It is concentrated in foods that are low in fiber and are rich in nutrients.

It is rich in carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, grains, seeds, sweets, bran, rice bran, alfalfa and alfalfa and provides all essential nutrients. Dairy animals also require adjectives comprising non-nutritive material, For example, disease-fighting antibiotics and growth hormones. These substances are added to feed to increase the growth and production of animal milk and to protect against disease. These are important for high milk production in dairy cows. A dairy cow should consume 15 to 20 kg afforded daily caring of cows and carts. It is important to pay attention to the health and hygiene status of the cows and calves. keep them clean and dry. Cows need many dairy components to stay healthy. high yielding dairy cows require high amounts of protein such as mixed wheat feed, alfalfa, and other protein supplements. They also require salts and minerals.

Feed them well in the morning with all nutritious foods. Sitting in the shelter all day weakens their bowls. They should be left in the open ground twice a day, as it keeps them active. Maintaining cows and good and medium weight is very important to ensure their health. Please jute bags over the cow shed in winter. provide fresh and clean water to your animals during all seasons. Consult the wet for advice. It is recommended to us as cows once every two months. Good foods ensure good health and maximum production. Always try to provide an adequate quantity of high quality and nutritious food to cows. Greens help to maximise milk production. add as many greens as possible to regular feed make a grazing place for your cows. dairy cows require more water than any other animal. Their milk contains a large amount of water.

Generally, a dairy cow needs about five litres of water to produce one litre of milk. breeding of cows the ability to detect heat cycles among your cows and heifers is invaluable if you want to ensure your herd’s reproductive performance. Failure to detect when cows are in heat and breeding cows that aren’t and heat is a major contributor to low fertility and economic loss for producers. recognising signs of heat first standing to be mounted, mounting other vowels, mucus discharge, swelling and reddening of the Whirlpool billowing restlessness and trailing, rubbed, tail head hair and 30 flats, chin resting and back rubbing, sniffing and licking, care and management of pregnant counts. taking good care and proper management is the main step to succeed in any animal husbandry business.

If you realise them on time, management of good care of pregnant animals will yield good carbs and high milk yield. immunise girls against diseases. There should be a separate shelter room for pregnant comes. Feed quality feeds good quality of leguminous feed still Further, wheat bran, oats and lizard oil seeds provide calcium supplements. special care should be taken about mineral and vitamin deficiencies, as they can cause serious adverse effects on the newly born calf. The animal should neither be lean nor fat. Water should be provided for drinking at frequent intervals to not allow them to fight with other animals. a wider slippery condition that causes fractures, dislocations, etc.

Housing to keep the cows healthy, productive and free from diseases good habitat is very important with proper ventilation system and ensure adequate flow of fresh air and light inside the house. A concrete house is very suitable for God’s proper drainage of rainwater should be arranged to maintain a healthy environment. A lot of water is required for farm operations such as washing, farming, processing of milk etc. A continuous water supply is essential electricity must be available on the shed. farms should be away from the noise-producing factory or chemical industry. industrial waste materials in the form of gaseous or liquid can pollute the surrounding resources

Identifying Sick Livestock in Your Farm

Identifying Sick Livestock in Your Farm

Raising livestock can be challenging. Even with the best management, animals can become sick. Knowing when you have a healthy animal is easy. They’re bright, alert, responsive to their environment, have a shiny hair coat and a good appetite. But do you know when your animals not doing well? Do you know when you should call your veterinarian? Hi, I’m Dr Lisa Lowen. Extension veterinarian for the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Knowing your animal’s normal behaviour and vital signs are an important step in knowing when they’re healthy or not healthy. It’s also crucial that you have a good working relationship with a local veterinarian that can come out when you need them to assess your animal.

Together, you guys can put together a great working relationship for good herd health and overall productivity and longevity of your herd. How do you know if your animals are sick? Generally speaking, anytime their behaviour is off, you should investigate. Ask yourself, are they separating themselves away from the rest of the herd. animals that are sick spend a lot of time by themselves, they may not come up to the feed bunk to eat, they may be seeking solitude in the woods. So you need to check those animals out. Also, look at their general appearance in terms of cleanliness. animals that are not feeling well spend a lot of time lying down, and they may have their flanks covered with dirt and manure. And if they’re the only animal in the herd that looks like that. It’s a good indication that they’re not feeling well. If you have an animal that cannot stand and their recumbent that needs immediate veterinary attention.

Similarly, if you’re seeing any neurologic signs of the animal laying on its side and paddling its legs. If it’s having a seizure, or if it appears blind, you should contact your veterinarian for advice. Also if you have an animal that can stand, but it’s non-weight bearing on one limb that requires immediate attention because there’s a serious lameness issue going on. Eating and drinking is an important part of overall animal health. But sometimes when you have animals out on pasture, you may not know if they’ve been eating. Luckily for us, ruminants have designed an easy way for us to tell. If you go to the left side of the animal, there’s a little triangular area called the parallel lumbar fossa. And we’ve outlined this with some tape.

It starts at the last rib goes across to the hip bone, and then forms a nice little triangle, the rumen or the big large fermentation, that compartment of the stomach lies directly below this parallel lumbar fossa. If the animal has been eating, there’ll be food in the rumen. And this parallel bar fossa will be distended to about the level of the last rib. If the animal has not been eating, this area will become sunken and there will be a very visible triangular indent in the side of the animal. Now again, this is on the left side because that’s where the rumen is on the body. If you notice that your animal has this triangular indent pushed greatly out and they’re having trouble breathing.

That indicates that we’ve got a condition called rumen bloat where there’s too much gas accumulating in that room, and that’s a medical emergency and you need to call your veterinarian right away. So when in doubt, if you’re not sure if your animals have been eating, look at the triangular area of the parallel lumbar fossa. And that will tell you animals that are not drinking enough soon become dehydrated. And as an owner, there’s an easy way for you to check to see if your animals becoming dehydrated. If we grab the skin on the neck and retract it, just pull it gently and let go. It should bounce right back to its normal position. If the skin stays tented after you pull it, that indicates that the animals are dehydrated. You can also do this over the eye and grab the skin over the eye and it should bounce right back.

And then with ruminant animals, animals that chew their cud, there’s also a special thing that happens with them. When they become severely dehydrated, the eye will retract away from the skull and kind of sink back into the head. Some farmers refer to this as being sunken eyes. So if you see that the eyeball itself is sinking back into the skull, that’s a sign of severe dehydration and your veterinarian should be contacted so that fluids can be administered to your animal. It’s always important to monitor urination and defecation in the animals. If you have a male animal and you observe them stretching out with their back legs behind them straining to urinate, you may or may not see urine actually dripping from the previews. But if it’s not a full constant stream of urine, that’s a problem that indicates that they have some sort of urinary tract obstruction and they need immediate medical attention because without it, their bladder will continue to fill with urine and it can potentially rupture. In terms of desiccation. It depends on what kind of ruminant you have. For sheep and goats. They have pelleted faeces and it should remain a normal pellet.

If the pellet becomes loose, clumped or watery diarrhoea That’s a big problem for cattle if it becomes projectile diarrhoea most definitely a problem that warrants having your veterinarian come out. If it’s looser than normal manure, and the animals losing a lot of weight, again, that indicates that you need to contact your veterinarian for an investigative workup. Pneumonia can be a common problem in farm animals. One way that you can tell if your animals having some respiratory issues is to take their respiratory rate. If you stand back and watch their chest move, each time that it moves will count as one respiration. Count that for a minute, and that will give you the respiratory rate. If you go to our website, we will have listings of all the different vital signs including respiratory rates for all the different farm animal species.

Another part of looking to see if your animals having respiratory problems is to check out their nose. A normal healthy animal will have a small amount of clear moisture around both nostrils. And the animal will also be licking their nose a lot to keep them clean farm animals like to keep food and dirt off of their nose. So if you see a lot of feet stuck to the nose, if you see thick mucus coming out or blood coming out, that indicates that you have some sort of respiratory problem and your veterinarian should be contacted so that they can work up the issue for you. One of the best things you can do as an owner is to get the vital signs of your animal before you call your veterinarian. That gives them a better idea of what may be going on before they come to your farm.

We talked about how you can get the respirations of the animal by counting the chest movements. The other thing you can do is to take a rectal temperature using a regular digital thermometer inserted into the rectum. When it beeps, pull it out, read the temperature and record it on a piece of paper. You can also get the heart rate back here, there’s an artery that runs in the middle of the tail. So if you put your hand about the level of the rectum, let your fingers fall into a natural groove that falls in the middle of the tail, wrap your thumb around just to help hold your fingers in place. And then gently put a little bit of pressure and count for 30 seconds or 15 seconds to get the heart rate per minute.

If you have trouble because the cow moving its tail too much, or they’re a little bit nervous having you hold it, you can also get the heart rate by listening to the heart. To do that, you’re going to need a stethoscope and you can buy an inexpensive, inexpensive stethoscope online or you may be able to buy one at your local Co Op. The heart is located behind the elbow of the animal. So you find the elbow at the top of the leg. And you’re going to take the headpiece of the stethoscope and press it deep underneath that elbow and hold it in place and again count for 15 seconds or 30 and you’ll be able to get the heart rate. You want to make sure that you tuck this in deep because if you don’t, you’re not going to hear the heart.

So once you get it in there, and you hear the rhythmic beating of the heart, again counting for 15 or 30 seconds, get the heart rate recorded, and then you’ll have some good information to give your veterinarian.

Six Primary Dairy Breeds In United State

Six Primary Dairy Breeds In United State

There are six primary breeds of dairy cattle raised in the United States. They are the

  1. Holstein

  2. Jersey

  3. Brown Swiss

  4. Guernsey

  5. Ayrshire

  6. Milking Shorthorns

The overwhelming majority of our country’s milk supply comes from Holstein, jersey, and Brown Swiss breeds. Of those three over 90% of the nation’s milk comes from the familiar black and white pattern Holstein. The reason for that is mainly about the volume of the common breeds Holsteins are the largest cows and can reach weights of more than 1500 pounds. because of their size, mature Holsteins can produce much more milk with cows producing nearly nine gallons of high-quality milk each day.

One of the things that differentiate the dairy breeds is the components of their milk, or the biological makeup of the milk components like butterfat, which makes milk taste sweeter and creamier, and protein, which provides nutrients and energy are extremely valuable. Smaller breeds such as the jersey and guernseys are well known for their higher quality components. That’s important since they don’t produce as much volume. So the quality is valuable to farmers who can sell their higher butterfat milk to processors who make foods like butter, cheese, or ice cream, which breed each farmer chooses to care for on their farm is a personal preference and business decision. Some farmers even have several different breeds on their farms.

Each farmer must decide which breed provides them with the most value, and how can they provide that cow with the various food, water, shelter, and medical care so the animals are healthy and happy, and ultimately produce the most high-quality milk. The most important thing to remember is that all milk produced by these various dairy breeds is nutritious, containing nine essential nutrients including protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and much more. Even better, the milk is always delicious.

Dairy Cattle Breeds Found in United State

Dairy Cattle Breeds Found in United State

Let’s talk about dairy cattle breeds. So really in the US, there’s only six, arguably maybe seven major breeds that we milk on a regular basis. And we are going to look at 10 different breeds here. So the other three or four are basically less common. Definitely not used as much in the dairy industry, but still important for one reason or another. So we’re going to talk about one right away that you may have never heard of before. So number 21 is the American milking Devon. And this breed really isn’t used much anymore. However, it was absolutely probably the most important animal to early people living in the United States. The Pilgrims first brought this breed over, back in the 1700s. And they were used for milk and meat and as draft animals.

So they were the oxen that pulled the carts that ploughed the farms, they were actually the draft animal of choice that pulled waggons across the Oregon Trail, their hardiness and their usefulness made them a really essential breed too early Americans because you had a food source of both meat and milk, and you had a source of labour and transportation. Unfortunately, now there’s only about 500 to 1500 left in America, and they actually originated in England in Devon shear, hence their name, Devon. But they’ve been crossbred so many times there now that there are no purebreds left there at all. And in America, what happened was as the shorthorn breed gained in popularity, these devices became much rarer. And now they’re usually only found in New England, where the climate is too cold for short horns, and mostly at historical sites.

So Plymouth Plantation, Jamestown, that sort of thing, because that’s what that’s the cow that needs to be there for historical accuracy since that’s what those early colonies would have been raising in the 1950s. This breed was bred to increase its beef characteristics, and it wound up actually splitting so there is an actual beef Devins breed as well. And that was formed in 1978. For colours very similar to a red Angus or red pool, where there that dark red colour with the lighter muzzle and the lighter otter, and then they have black tips on their white horns and the horns kind of curl forwards and slightly up at the end. But you can see the black tip on there. They’re well adapted to low input management. So you don’t have to, you know, be taking care of them every day. They can kind of live on their own, and they’re good for harsh environments.

They’re medium size, so they’re smaller than a Holstein, but they are larger than a jersey. And their butterfat is actually pretty comparable to a jersey when they’re Milt. So with number 22, we’re going to get into one of those six most common breeds that we do have, and that is the air share. So the air share is a Scottish breed, it’s a red and white colour. And they are a little bit tough to tell apart sometimes from red and white Holsteins. So part of the way that I like to do that is I noticed that there spots so is kind of jagged edges. And that’s one way that you can tell them apart from their colours also a little bit more of a yellowy red. And their milk is referred to as the ideal drinking milk. So for that fluid milk market, it’s perfect.

It’s got a matte, moderate amount of butterfat and really high protein. The fat particles in Ayrshire milk are actually slightly smaller and they’re better distributed. So it’s actually easier to make this milk into cheese and yoghurt and ice cream and a lot of those dairy products. These guys are really efficient grazers. They’re known for being exceptionally resistant to stress. And one example of that is in 1929, they walked two of these cows from Vermont all the way to Missouri for a show. And then once they got there they have normally and they produce some of the most outstanding milk records that the country’s ever seen at that point. So really tremendously hardy cows.

They also naturally have horns that are usually a for longer, but they are usually D horned as calves because you can imagine a lot of cattle living together in close situations like that. They would actually hurt each other if they kept their horns and the bull calves for air shares make really good beef steers because they don’t get yellow tallow, so the fat doesn’t yellow and that actually would reduce the carcass quality if that happened. So they’re pretty good for beef. Another one of the major very breeds in the US is the Brown Swiss and these guys are from the Swiss Alps. So They thrive at high elevations, and they’re really resistant to extreme temperatures. This is the oldest of all the dairy breeds. And some people think it dates back as far as 4000 BC, they have the ideal milk for cheese because it has the perfect fat to protein ratio.

There, this greyish brown to tan colour, and they have a dark nose with a white muzzle surrounding it. So that’s one of the ways that you can pick them out. Otherwise, they can look similar to some of the jerseys and the Guernsey cows. So these guys are known for having a pretty docile temperament and being really inquisitive and curious. So they’re nice cows to have around. They have the second-highest annual milk yield as well. And they tend to be very large cattle. So this would be in the same size range as a Holstein. Hopefully, you remember number 24 from our section on beef breeds. So the shorthorn in here we call it the dairy shorthorn is really the same breed. Although depending on whether you wanted to keep a herd for beef or for dairy, you would probably try to breed for certain characteristics. So just like the beef, shorthorn, they come in red, red and white or Rhone. And this is a medium-sized cow.

They were originally dual purpose. And in 1958, these guys officially became a different breed from the beef variety of shorthorn, they’re easy to breed, they produce smaller calves than most cows. And that really leads to fewer complications, because there’s less to get kind of stuck in the birth canal. They also have really great reproductive efficiency, meaning that you can breed them quicker, and you don’t have to give them as long of drying off period in between. and they’ll still produce just as much milk. The bull calves make really profitable beef steers because of their beef history.

So there’s a really high salvage value when you do have bull calves born, and they’re significantly less prone to disease than Holsteins or other cattle because of that shorthorn background. They really feed efficient, and they have the lowest cost to raise out of any dairy cattle. So this can be really a profitable dairy breed, and it is one of our major ones still. The next one that we’re going to see is the Dutch felted. Sometimes this is called a lock-in valder. And that literally means that there’s a white cloth draped over their body. And that’s what lock and builder translate to. So these guys might look real similar to those belted Galloways that we saw with our beef breeds. And they come in the same colours. They’re either black or brown is a base coat with that white belt down the middle.

What’s kind of interested in interesting is that they’re really not related to the belt of Galloway at all. These guys come from the Netherlands. And they were bred by the Dutch specifically for this pattern because the Dutch were fascinated with this pattern. And they actually bred it into a lot of different animals. So you can find goats and pigs and rabbits that all have this particular marking. So for instance, Hampshire pigs have this belt on them. And that is just the duchas fascination with kind of these Oreo cookie looking coats. They’re also much larger than the belted Galloways and they have horns where the Galloway’s are pulled Galloway’s have that double coat that helps keep the warm Dutch belt to do not they would not do as well in the cold weather as that beef cow would.

And interestingly, PT Barnum, the big circus guy was one of the first importers of Dutch belted cows to the US, and he had a large herd that he’s showed off for their unusual colouring. The milk yield from these guys is comparable to Holsteins, but they’re not nearly as popular. Their milk is actually fairly easily digestible because it has small fat globules. They’re small bones, which makes for easy calving. And they are known for their longevity and fertility. So they’re able to have and be milked into their team so you can keep them around a lot longer. However, this is a critically endangered breed. There’s only 200 of them in the US. Mostly This is because the Dutch were resistant to sell their prized cattle. So the European stocks suffered. And then both World Wars really made that worse.

That was worse and even further by the USDA bio programme in the 1980s when 1000s of dairy cattle were sold for beef to reduce the herd size in an attempt to raise milk prices. So these guys really aren’t found as much anymore. Next on our list is the Guernsey which is named for an island that is one of the Channel Islands in between the coast of France and England in the English Channel. They are this Fon are reddish blonde colour and white and usually have patches on their body but you notice they’re much lighter tannish yellow in comparison to the air shares. currencies are known for extremely feeding efficient and they need 20 to 30% less feed than other breeds to produce the same amount of milk.

They reach reproductive maturity earlier, they have a higher heat tolerance, and they’re known for rich yellow coloured milk that’s really high in beta carotene. 60% of guernseys have a Kappa case and B gene, which produces excellent milk for making cheese has a firmer curd and better cheese characteristics. And this breed is becoming more popular now. As the US starts to reprioritize the quality of milk over just quantity. These guys are also very popular for crossbreeding, adding that hybrid vigour and some of those positive milk characteristics to other breeds. Probably the most important breed on our list is the Holstein Friesian. These are usually just called Holsteins. Holstein refers to stuff that is bred in North America.

And that Friesian ending is more commonly used when we’re talking about European stock instead, they are dutch and German in origin. They came from the freeze land area, and they’re black and white. Typically in that recognisable, Piebald pattern. They’re also much larger than other breeds. These guys are the number one breed dairy of dairy in the US, and they also provide a lot of our beef in our veal. They have a fairly low productive life, they typically only are kept until they are about six years, and they have low butterfat and low protein content. So not the highest quality milk However, they produce way more milk per year than any other breed and that’s why they are the backbone of our dairy industry at this point.

Another very popular breed is the jersey jerseys are much smaller cows, and you can say they come mostly in this light, tannish font colour, although they can get even up to like a dark brown colour, and some of them have quite a bit of gold in their coat. They are also named after one of the Channel Islands the island of Jersey, in between England and France. And they have a black nose with white surrounding the muzzle and white surrounding their eyes. They have a dark tongue and they have a dark switch at the end of their tail. They can easily be confused with the brand Swiss but they’re much much smaller, more delicate-looking cows overall. They also produce less milk overall than any other breed. However, they’re really efficient so they produce more milk for the cost of feeding the jersey since they eat a lot less.

Their milk is also nutritionally superior to other milk is 18% more protein 20% more calcium 25% more butterfat than the average milk. They are less susceptible to lameness, probably because of their smaller size, as well as they have black hooves and that black compound helps make the huff harder, their milk is often worth more than the Holsteins milk, and their feeds costs are less, they’re faster to mature, so that makes them more profitable. One of the issues with jerseys, however, is because they are so much smaller, a lot of existing dairy facilities really aren’t equipped for them. Because you need equipment that is suited to the size of this cow. Some people think that this could be the more sustainable future of dairy.

Because jerseys take 32% less water to maintain and require 11% less land, they produce less manure overall and use substantially fewer fossil fuels. So it actually results in a 20% reduction in the total carbon footprint that it takes to raise a Jersey cow compared to a Holstein. So jerseys have been gaining in popularity. And if they were to replace the Holstein in the American dairy herd that would be the equivalent of taking 443,000 cars off of the road. So that’s something that we do need to consider when we’re thinking about where the industry is going. So just to recap for a moment, our most common dairy breeds in the United States are jerseys, Holstein, Friesians, guernseys, dairy, short horns, brown, Swiss, and air shares. Those are the six that you’re most likely to see.

And then American milking devins. And Dutch belted as we’ve talked about so far that are fairly rare, and so is the next one that we’re going to talk about which are line backs. So this is number 29. It’s really unclear where line backs came from. They are definitely related to Holsteins, but It looks like they represent the melting pot that was early breeding here in the US. So these are called a landrace breed. And what that means is depending on where you go in the country, there are genetically distinct local populations. And then if you compare these line backs in one area of the country to linebacker and the other, they’re very, very different from each other. So that’s what a landrace breed is. They’re locally distinct.

And part of the reason that they’re so different from each other in different areas is these guys are really bred for their colour pattern more than anything else. So they don’t have other characteristics really in common so much as their colour. They have this distinctive skunk-like stripe along their back, where they’ll have a white area there. And then they have great a black on either side of their body, often with speckled edges around the outside, and that makes it look almost Roane. But it’s a totally different gene than arone. They can also come in red varieties, but this black and white variety is much more common. They’re traditionally dual purpose. So I and milk and they became less popular after world war two when cattle we’re all bred to be superior for one use, we want to just the best dairy cow or just best beef cow.

Now these line backs are often kept with dairy herds of other breeds, and sometimes those pets and we do have a couple in the local area a couple of dairies who keep them as part of their herd, they have moderate milk eels, and they also have kind of medium milk quality. So nothing really stands out because again, they were bred for their colour. Some of the varieties are now being bred more for beef. And one of the benefits of that is they do tend to be free of heavy extra muscular fat, that fat cap. And they have fine-grained ruby red coloured meat with a bright, rich, clean flavour. So a lot of times they are bred for grass-fed beef. registration fees have actually been reduced in the breed registry so that they’re trying to encourage more farmers to breed them. And since it is related to Holsteins, they continue to be cross-bred that way, and the last breed.

It’s not technically one of our big six in the US, however, it’s really kind of another form of Holstein, and that is our red and whites. So these are actually composite breeds. So they are Holsteins, combined with air share or shorthorn. And they’re usually bred so that you get a short horn-type cow, you get those advantages of the short born, but better milk production and that comes from the Holstein so they’re going to produce a lot more quantity of milk. The red and the red and white Holstein is actually a recessive gene. So the only way to keep ensuring that you get red and whites is to breed only red and whites to each other. If you breed them back to a black and white Holstein, then at least that first-generation you’re going to get all black and whites again. So red and white Holsteins used to be within the same breed registry as regular Holstein Friesians.

But then in 1964, the breed registry basically said we’re not going to accept any red and whites. In order to be a Holstein, they have to be black and white. So at that point, they became their own breed and they started their own registry. So they are the most recently recognised dairy breed since there, they’ve been around but they’re kind of new at just being considered Retton whites. Their size and their milk yield are really comparable to Holsteins. And for the most part, they’re pretty interchangeable with Holsteins. Physically red and whites are really hard to tell apart from air shares. So in addition to the kind of looking at their actual physical features, you want to make sure that you know some of the characteristics about them that will also be asked in the quiz because sometimes it’s almost impossible to tell them apart.

Guernsey’s can also be a little bit confusing, but Guernsey does tend to be a lighter tan has less red in the coat and it has more of a golden yellow. The other two that are easy to confuse are their brand Swiss and the jersey because their colour is so similar. With brand Swiss, there’s almost always more of a grey overtone to the coat. And then Jersey is really much more of a tannish colour or brownish colour usually. And then the other big difference, of course, is size jerseys are much much smaller than brown Swiss.

Beef Cattle Breeds

Beef Cattle Breeds 1-10

We’re going to be talking about your first 10 beef cattle breeds. So one thing that you want to remember here is that there are two possible scientific names. Most of the cattle that we raise in the US are both tourists. But remember we do have those Zeebo cattle, who are both indicate, and we’ve talked about the differences between those before. So one thing that you want to keep in mind is to make sure you know which scientific name applies to each breed. And remember that if it’s a composite breed that has some Brahman cattle, which are one of the Bos indicus types in it, then you’ll probably need to list both scientific names because they’re really kind of both species at that point, they’re across between the two. So breed number one is the beef master. And this was the first American composite breed, and it’s a composite breed of Herefords, brahmans and shorthorns. And it was first bred in the early 1900s in the US.

So since it’s a composite breed, you’re gonna list both scientific names for it, since it has a little bit of both in it. It comes in many different colours, but most of the common ones are either a reddish-brown or a done colour. And they come in both pulled and horned varieties. So pulled means that they genetically do not have horns, so these guys can have them or not. They’re very hardy, they’re well suited to the Texas climate, they milk well, so they’re a good dual-purpose cows, and they’re very intelligent and fairly gentle. Then we have the belted Galloway. And this guy a lot of times is known as the Oreo cookie cow for obvious reasons. That white belt that you see is actually a dominant traits so they can be born without it if they get two copies of the recessive gene.

And they’re usually black outside of that belt, but they can come in a brown base colour as well with the white belt. They’re the oldest known British breed, and they have soft, wavy hair with a thick undercoat and that allows them to survive in very cold wet weather. So these were bred in the Galloway region, which was known for that rainy cold weather. Number three is one of the most likely breeds for you to see around here. And that is the Angus, the official name is Aberdeen Angus, they come from Scotland, and they are the second most popular beef breed in the US and the most popular probably in Maryland. They’re known for their marbling in their meats, so they produce really high-quality meat with a lot of that intramuscular fat, and that’s going to make it really buttery in flavour. So that’s really sought after.

So sometimes you will see the beef labelled specifically Angus beef for that reason. And as of 1954, red Angus, which is this one down here was actually recognised as a separate breed from Black Angus. So these started out all as one breed. And now that red colour has been selectively bred for as the black one, and they’re actually two separate breed registries. But for our purposes, we are going to combine them together. Number four is blonde Aquitaine or a lot of times, these are just referred to like blondes. And you can see where they get their name, they have that blonde hair colour. So this is a breed that was developed from a variety of draft milk and meat breeds. And it was developed in the south of France, where there are a lot of plains, hills and mountains. So it’s quite a variety of different climates.

And because of that, it led to a really highly adaptable cow that can live anywhere and can be used for many different purposes. They’re known for their lean meats. And they’re also very fine bones, which is good when you’re raising a beef cow because it leads to a higher dressing percentage, you’re going to get more meat off of that animal. They are also known for really great muscling. And they have superior feed efficiency compared to other breeds, so it’s not going to cost as much to feed them to produce the same amount of meat that another breed would. So with the exception of that beef Master, which was that composite breed, all of the cattle that we’ve seen so far are boast Taurus, which is much more common around here, since those were the European breeds that were originally brought over.

So number five is our only true boasts indicates pure boasts indicate cow that we have on the list and that is the Brahman and this is the most common zebu cattle that you’d find in the US. So you can see that Brahmins look quite a bit different than most of your most tourists breeds. One of the things that they have is this in large dewlap in the front of their body here, and this probably helps them with thermoregulation. regulating their body temperature, because they have all of those flaps of skin that creates an extra surface area to help them cool off. Remember that Bose indicate breeds come from hot areas like India, and Africa. So thermoregulation is very important for this breed. This hump that they have above their shoulder here is actually a fat deposit. Think of it like a camel.

So it allows them to store nutrients mostly in the form of fat and water in that area, which helps them again live in these very hot dry environments. Because they were bred to be so hearty, they actually have fairly poor carcass quality. So they’re not the best beef cattle for that reason. They are dual-purpose cows so you can milk them or use them for me. And their main use and the US is actually in the development of new breeds of composite breeds. Because when they’ve crossbred the hybrids, such as the beef Master, and you’re going to see another one, later on, inherit those positive traits that they have, such as the ability to withstand really high heat. These guys are also really disease resistant. So that’s a great trait to have. But since we’re crossbreeding, those hybrids will produce much higher quality meat than the Brahmin cow itself. What one other really neat thing about Brahmins is they actually secrete basically a built-in insect repellent.

So that’s another thing that comes in handy, especially in a lot of hot regions of the world. So all of those great features make them the perfect crossbreeding cow. But they’re not going to probably be able to survive in a lot of cooler environments in the US, and because of that they’re mostly used for breeding purposes. So speaking of brahmans, here, we have another composite free. So again, this is a Bose tors, Bose indicates mix, and that is the Brangus and it got its name brangus because it is Brahman and Angus combined. So just like Angus cattle, these either come in a black variety or a red variety, and they are always polled, they never have horns, also like the Angus cows, they have an enlarged dewlap a lot like the Brahman cattle.

So you can see that’s one way that you can tell them apart from the Angus cows is you have those flaps of skin in that area. And their ears do tend to flop a little bit more than Angus, although you can see they’re nothing like the floppy ears of a Brahmin. And by the way, those floppy ears of the Brahmin probably help with a couple of things insect control, and also thermal regulation, since it’s so much surface area that’s going to allow them to cool off. So the brain has some of those traits, but they have all the positive qualities of the Angus, so they have that great marbling in their meat, their meats going to be a lot higher quality than Brahman. But they’re going to be able to live in a warmer or harsher environment than Angus cows would because of those Brahmin traits that they carry. breed number seven is the Shar lei and Sharla you’re actually really popular in our local area.

So you may have seen these around. So they are a white cow, sometimes a little bit tannish coloured but usually more of a true white and they have a pink skin underneath which might give them a pinkish or even a whiter colour. They do have horns usually they can be removed, but they’re slender white tapered horns. And they are a French breed. As you can probably tell from the name. They’re one of the larger breeds, they’re going to stand a little bit bigger than the other breeds that you’ll see. And we breed them mostly because they’re known for a larger than usual round and loin area. So if you look at the cow and you remember your beef cuts, that round is this back rump area here. And then the loin is this area through here.

And if you think about where a lot of the expensive cuts meat come from on a cow, a lot come from that loin area, that tenderloin that sirloin all of those good steaks that you usually get, that’s all from that area. So if you have a cow that’s really good at bulking upright in that area that’s going to be great for beef production. So really popular locally one of the major beef cows that you’ll see in Harford County. So we’re going from the one way cow that’s very common around here to one that you probably will not see but it’s a really interesting breed and it’s a chia Nina. So this is an Italian breed and it is one of the oldest in the world. It is closely related to the ancient ORAC that all domesticated cattle came from. And this breed is thought to have existed before the Roman Empire. It was originally bred as a draft breed for pulling equipment pulling waggons things like that.

But now it is more used for meat. And they do come in multiple colours, but they are usually white, their size and their type can vary considerably because the breed is so old and there aren’t as many selected characteristics bred into it, you can see that the shape of the body is not as square as most beef cattle, and you have a lot more muscle in these front shoulders. And that’s because they were bred for pulling things mostly originally. And these guys are really just unique in their giant size. They are one of the fastest-growing breeds from birth. And they also on average, are much bigger than other bulls or other cows of different breeds, although they aren’t actually the largest individual bull or cow in the world.

So we’re going to go from our largest breed with the chin Nina to our smallest breed, which is the Dexter and the Dexter is an Irish breed. And it’s the smallest of all the European breeds. It’s half the size of a Herford, which we’re going to see next week. So about half the size of seven Angus cow as well. And you can tell that from the guy standing here in the picture, whereas the Giannino was towering over this six-foot guy, here’s a six-foot guy that could easily be double the height of a Dexter. So these guys come in multiple colours, but they’re mostly either black, this rusty red colour or a done which is the tan colour. They’re multiple purpose breeds.

So they’re used for milk and meat and also as oxen they can pull small carts and things like that. This is known as a hobby farmer breed because it can do everything on the farm. And they’re really easy to raise on a small scale. So their milk is very rich, it’s similar to jersey milk with really high butterfat. And because of all these characteristics, they make them perfect for someone who wants to do subsistence farming, where they’re going to basically raise enough meats and milk and that kind of thing to support their family. So, for someone who’s kind of living off the grid, the Dexter cow is a great choice.

Then that brings us to our last breed, which is somewhat similar, and that is the job Avaya and job advisors are a little bit bigger than Dexter’s you can see that these come up somewhere mid-chest on a six-foot guy, whereas these were done at waist level. And they also come in multiple colours. So it’s usually a cream colour up to kind of a reddish-yellow colour. They’re medium weight cows, so they’re not as big as some of the Angus cattle and that kind of thing. But they still will produce a lot of meat. And they also have good milking ability. So they are dual purpose. They’re very fertile. They tend to calve with ease, which makes raising them a lot easier. And they’re also really good mothers, their calves gain weight quickly, which makes it a profitable breed.